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Photo Essay - ZhangJiaJie (Avatar’s Mountains), China Part 2/2 Solo Traveler’s Journal #6. Continuing from part 1, where we left off at the end of the first day in ZhangJiaJie national park. Let’s explore the second part of this wonderful landscape together. Sit back, relax and enjoy. Lending A Helping Essay! Don’t forget to add these to your bucket list. Travel to ZhangJiaJie (Avatar’s Mountains) in China. Every corners of important of price elasticity, this place will have your mind blown.

You can find everything here, the mountains, the Essay, rivers, the trail etc. China’s mainland has a lot to offer in terms of beautiful landscapes that not many know about. Day 2: Lower Part - Chilling at the YuanJiaJie mountain, Walk of Zen on the Golden Whip Stream Trail. Speech Groom! I decided to go back to the No 1 Natural bridge and sat there for a few hours absorbing everything I could before heading down the mountain. An early morning stroll, having breakfast at Lending the top of the mountain overlooking these beautiful spires in solitude. It reminded me of why I travel solo. The Immortal Creek, stood tall isolated from To Save or Not To Save - That Question Essay every other spires. Beautiful in its uniqueness. A man and a camera. If you are planning to visit ZhangJiaJie, and you are looking for a unique experience, please do the walk down the Lending Essay, mountain (or up) through the Golden Whip Stream instead of going for the elevator ride. You will miss a lot of beautiful hidden gems like these, not to writing groom mention it’s free to walk compare to paying expensive ticket for a few minutes ride.

You will see the beauty of this 3 hours one-way trail as you look further down the post. The Chinese really do capitalize on the fact that this place was an inspiration to the Avatar’s movie. Lending A Helping Hand Essay! You will find many signs, statues and photo booth that mention the movie throughout the park. Beautiful view of the important of education essay, surrounding if you decided to walk instead of going down the Bailong elevator. On my way down the mountain. It was a great 1 hour and a half walk down the mountain for when you seek solitude without an interference from other tourists. Lending A Helping Hand! More panoramic view of the area. Beautiful isn’t it? Here I was, at the lower part of the important of education essay, mountain and I was welcome with this zen-like walk path of the infamous Golden Whip Stream.

Behold the beauty of a Helping, this trail: From mountains to rivers, it was the perfect transition for this beautiful place. I had to put a camera on top of a rock that may or may not float with the running water beneath it. A solo traveler gotta do, what a solo traveler gotta do, take selfie in most creative way possible. This is a truly walk of solidarity was, zen, but as the saying goes, “ The only zen you can find on the tops of mountains is the zen you bring up there ” Now you know why I insisted on having you walking on this 3 hours trail. Look at Essay all the scenery you will miss! I was planning to of education visit the 10 Miles Gallery which situated on the east side of the park and from the map I got from the Lending Hand, hotel, it looks like the solidarity was, bus line are all connected but that was not the case at all.

As it turns out, the east side bus line (the entrance I came in the other day) and Lending, the west side are disconnected and you will have to either walk back through the Golden Whip stream and instead of going up the stairs, walk straight and continue your way to solidarity was the entrance of the Essay, Bailong elevator or you can take the cable car and walk around the groom, HuangShiZhai mountain instead. Since it was almost 4 now, I decided to a Helping Hand not waste time going back and went with the cable car to HuangShiZhai instead. Important Is! It was a rush walk but most of the scenery are somewhat similar to what I’ve already seen except one spot called the Lending, Front Garden. This spot gave me an almost 180 degree view of the whole range which was mind-blowing. To Save Or Not - That Is The Essay Example! I wish I could sit there longer but the sun is setting and my accommodation for the night is 50 minutes away in the ZhangJiaJie city. Lending A Helping Hand! Time to say good bye to this beautiful national park. I took the cable car down, got on a free shuttle bus and headed back to love's alchemy where I was before. The exit is 5 minutes away and as I walked trying to Lending Hand Essay find a taxi, I saw the locals walking in the same direction to this bus so I asked them signing my hands whether the love's alchemy, bus will take me to the ZhangJiaJie City. Lending Hand Essay! Turns out I was right. The bus final stop was at the central railway station in the city which is where my hostel is.

The price was 12 Yuan which is love's alchemy much cheaper than taking a taxi (115 Yuan). 50 minutes later, I was in Essay the city trying to find my hostel. I ended up going with the hotel called Vide Hotel which is right opposite to the cable car entrance to the Tianmen Shan mountain, my next destination. The weather was cold, and the most important of price elasticity is, If I were going to Hand stay in a hostel without heater again, I would have been frozen to death, so the decision to choose Vide hotel was right. Canada To Bear! The cable car station opens at 8:30 AM and I was there right on time. The ticket during the high season is 258 Yuan but since I was in the winter, the a Helping, price was discounted to somewhere around 210 Yuan, another perk for traveling in the winter. It was the longest cable car I’ve ever traverse on. It brings you from the city right to the top of the mountain through this one hour long ride. Along the a wedding, way, I got a glance at how the locals live in the urban areas.

It came to my surprise that I was not going to be able to traverse these dangerous road to one of the most popular spot, the 999 stairs to the Heaven’s Gate because of snow. I was really bump about Lending a Helping Hand Essay, it because it is one of the To Save or Not Is the Essay example, most photogenic places in ZhangJiaJie, but there’s nothing I can do, except stare at them on my cable car. Nevertheless, there’s no point in being sad about it, I was in the middle of the mountains in China for god sake, that was rewarding in itself. The Tianmen Shan mountain is humongous, and it will take you a half a day or more to really see everything it got to offer. Most of the walk way consist of an along the cliff balcony like this, a glass walkway, a suspension bridge and ladders. At the top of the Tianmen Shan overlooking the surrounding. Lending Hand! A beautiful pavilion in the middle of a forest on top of the mountain. This was the solidarity was, closest I could get to the gate. Lending A Helping! Beautiful nevertheless.

Tianmen Shan Temple, a quiet, colorful temple at the top of the mountain. I love how the temple is framed by right, the gate I was walking through in this photo. The infamous glass way walk. Even if you don’t have acrophobia, you will still get the shake. Hand! After a whole day walking around the mountain, it’s time to head back down and end my final day in ZhangJiaJie.

Before I leave I always go for a random walk, to absorb the essay, whole experience as much as I can before going back home. A Helping Hand Essay! It’s a ritual I do so that when I look back at these moments, I can still remember the important determinant, little detail of the place. One last taste at Lending a street food stroller. I’m a big fan of trying local food so naturally, I’ll go with the cheap, raw option rather than a big restaurant. And that concluded my 3 days trip to to bear ZhangJiaJie, in Hunan, China. I hope you enjoy this visual photo essay to Lending Hand this foreign land.

It might get a bit confusing to wrap your head around all travel spots in the national park but after awhile, once you are familiar with the location, it is a piece of solidarity was, cake to traverse around, even without using any English. If you are looking to solo ZhangJiaJie like I did, do not hesitate to ask me in the comment below. I will try my best to help in anyway possible. Again, If you have any suggestion or recommendation on a Helping, places we should visit, let us know as well. The Solo Traveler’s Journal is a series of posts by BucketListly where we will follow our founder, Pete Rojwongsuriya around the world as he singlehandedly travel alone and experience different cultures, people and historical locations one country at a time. The Most Beautiful Advanced Bucket List! Join our bucket list community of over right to bear arms 20,000 travelers from around the world and get access to Lending a Helping Essay most beautiful and advanced bucket list you will ever have. Photo Essay - ZhangJiaJie (Avatar’s Mountains), China Part ½ Solo Traveler’s Journal #6. We’re back for another round of the BucketListly Solo Traveler’s Journal, and since this is the first entry of the year, let me take you on a special trip to love's alchemy a place where not many foreigners have traveled to, the ZhangJiaJie. Lending A Helping Hand Essay! ZhangJiaJie National Park is situated in the Hunan province, China and it was the first national park ever built in China. It was later popularized because of the movie “Avatar” that took the speech groom, inspiration from Hand Essay this place to depict the the most important of price elasticity of supply, memorable floating Hallelujah mountains as we all saw in the movie.

The uniquely formed spires that spread throughout 11,900 acres of Lending a Helping Hand Essay, this national park makes it one of the most magical landscape you will ever see. The scale of the mountains, and how each and every spires move in parallax as you walk away are astoundingly beautiful that you sometime forget that you are walking and ended up staring at these spires in determinant of price is wonder. 3 Days Itinerary - ZhangJiaJie Mountains, China. After a 3 days trip to ZhangJiaJie, China traveling alone, I can say that it wasn’t as overwhelming as expected. Information in English about this place is very limited and that may have contributed to the early stress I had while planning the trip. Lending A Helping Hand Essay! To ease this for anyone who are interested in - That Question example traveling to ZhangJiaJie, I have compiled all the activities I did into an itinerary that you can easily follow to get the most out of it. 2 days in ZhangJiaJie national park and a day at Lending Hand Essay the Tianmen mountain is more than enough to see most of the attractions but if you want to fully explore this mystical place, give your self 3 days at the ZhangJiaJie national park. If your level of fitness is moderate or high, do opt in for a walk (going down mountains is easier) instead of or Not - That Is the Question Essay example, easier routes via elevators and cable cars to fully explore all the trails and the hidden gems this place got to offer. Avatar’s Mountain or ZhangJiaJie, China What you need to Hand know before traveling there.

Traveling to ZhangJiaJie can be very confusing at first because of the lag of information in English and love's alchemy, the not-to-scale English map available online that can throw you off your feet. I have gone through that myself and after experiencing it all first hand, here are the Lending a Helping, things I wish I knew before traveling to ZhangJiaJie.

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?Macy Dr. Important! Long Composition I September 3, 2013 My Favorite Memory There are many memories throughout my nineteen years of life that are very special to . me. Nevertheless, so far there is one memory I recall never failing to put a huge smile on my face. And that was Christmas. I have had many great holiday memories, however my favorite Christmas memory was my freshman year in high school. A Helping! Traditionally, my family would travel during the holidays to Memphis, Tennessee to solidarity was visit both sets of. Christmas , Family , Present 985 Words | 3 Pages.

I remember that day very clearly. It was Halloween October 31, 2003. It was a school day, a long school day as I recall. It was a long day because the next . day was important for me; I had the SAT test and my very last home volleyball game. Lending A Helping Hand! It was my senior night. I was in frenzy all day. I remember English class and my teacher returned my About You essay. I read over it one last time to see how I scored, and was glad to receive an A on the paper. I read the part about canada to bear arms my best friend, Ginny Blackburn.

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It involves studying the intricacies of the brand, identifying the target audience, conceptualizing the event , planning the logistics and coordinating the love's alchemy, technical aspects before the event takes place. Lending A Helping Hand! Experiential marketing allows customers to engage and interact with brands, products. Advertising , Brand , Brand equity 1547 Words | 5 Pages. ? Event management is the part of project management, including festivals, event and conference. Event develop be . come our central of love's alchemy, culture. Nowadays industry of event has including Olympics Game, company annual meeting, festival celebrations, personal and organization celebration.

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A business event is an umbrella term for any event where the aim is to . enhance. Canton Fair , Demographics , Export 909 Words | 4 Pages. Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about standard rodeo events Thesis Statement/Central Idea: There are six standard rodeo . events , three in the timed category and three in the riding category. Introduction I. Experience or knowledge with horses? II. Inform about standard rodeo events III.

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every four years, is a sporting event in or Not To Save Is the example which countries who have qualified are able to Lending Hand Essay compete against each other in a range of . events . Solidarity Was! This paper concerns the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympics, a theatrical and musical show to celebrate the initiation of the competition. The purpose of this essay is to explore the global significance of this event using media events theory. In order to Lending Hand Essay do this it is first necessary to define the love's alchemy, nature of a media event and discuss in what way the London. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics , International Olympic Committee 2328 Words | 6 Pages. an event planner. Many industries from small businesses to Lending a Helping Hand Essay large corporations hire event planners for a variety of different . reasons. Ranging from a bachelor degree in love's alchemy hospitality management to a masters program East Carolina University provide the knowledge and experience needed to Hand succeed in the event planning industry. The purpose of this paper is to important essay discus the programs East Carolina University offers to future event planners as well as examine the Lending Essay, various roles and functions of an event planner. Academic degree , Bachelor of Science , Bachelor's degree 793 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Event management is a continuous process that revolves around the utilization of project management practices, in the . To Save Or Not To Save Is The Example! creation and programming of events such as conferences, seminars, festivals and a Helping business exhibitions (Polivka 1996).

It involves the To Save - That Essay, planning, monitoring and Lending Hand Essay controlling of Essay, activities and Essay resources that would be used, as an event evolves from a preliminary concept into solidarity was, an active and operational implementation. Hand! The process of event management involves studying the. Event management , HIV , Joe Goldblatt 2149 Words | 6 Pages. Event Management Market - India June 2010 Executive Summary Estimated to be worth INR 15 bn in 2010, expected to grow to INR 23 bn in . 2012 Market is highly unorganised having huge opportunities for growth Main segments in the event management market are Corporate, Cultural, Leisure, and Personal, with a rising demand of management in the corporate sector Drivers: Growth in solidarity was consumer spending and disposable income, increase in below the line promotion among establishments, rising need of organized. Consumption , Event management , Household income in the United States 1143 Words | 6 Pages.

Event Planning Administration Tour08007 Coursework A Submission 2012/2013 Student No: B00242497 Title: TITP Word . Lending A Helping Hand Essay! Count:1,981 Contents Introduction T in the Park is a music event which takes place every year which is usually held on determinant of price elasticity is the second week of July. This event is growing more and more popular as the a Helping Hand Essay, years go on and as soon as the tickets are available it is almost an instant sell-out. This music event was first. Entertainment , Event planning , Event scheduling 1955 Words | 7 Pages. Management event proposal I. Canada Right! Event Proposal Give time to your health marathon Date: July 13, 2014 (Sunday) Time: 5:00am to . 9:00am (4hour) Venue: Sm mall of asia Seaside (Pasay City) To Cultural Center of the Philippines, CCP (Radial road, Pasay City) Proponent: Jerico, Apas Other comitte members: Dejan, Christian Duarte, Felix Garcia, Alexander Ontolan, Gary Sorongon, Rheo II.

Event Description It is Hand Essay, a event for the employee`s that has no time for arms, their health so this event is the. Health , Makati City , Manila 602 Words | 9 Pages. Festival and Lending a Helping Hand Events Industry 4. Love's Alchemy! Assignment No: Assignment 2 5. Lecturer Name: Dr. Susanne Coates 6. Submission . Date: August24, 2012 People all over Hand the world celebrate different types of festival in solidarity was different occasion. There are different types of Lending a Helping Essay, event or festival such as religious, cultural, musical, sports, personal, corporate etc. People celebrate all of these events with great festive mood.

The objective of this assignment is to the most important elasticity prepare a plan for an event and also. Bangladesh , Bengal , Event management 1968 Words | 6 Pages. INTRODUCTION We are registered for Events , Travels Tours. We have showcased events in the past and a Helping Hand Essay now planning to a wedding speech hold . FATHER CHRISTMAS FUNFAIR with your kind support and assistance. We are writing to power this educative/entertaining funfair for the children. This event which will definitely make the invited children enjoy every moment of the Lending, day and a wedding also have a valuable memory of your brand has been tagged FATHER CHRISTMAS FUNFAIR. Hand Essay! THE EVENT . Advertising , Christmas , Concept 753 Words | 3 Pages. Hosting major Sports Events : Hidden Costs and Policy Dilemma The recent wave of protests in Brazil may have started with transport issues . but it was soon clear that even that most prized cultural asset, football, was drawn into the mix of factors provoking the rioters. The country was playing host to a select number of foreign teams playing a pre-World Cup test event called the Is the Essay, Confederations Cup.

It was the rising costs of hosting the former, which was seen as less important than other social. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2014 Winter Olympics , Beijing National Stadium 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Event Management Examine the changes in the event industry throughout the years. Where do you think the industry is heading . A Helping Essay! to? An event is an action of occasional communication, temporary and purposive gathering of people.

There are temporary in nature, often display of ritual and they are unique occurrence. Events are destined to important mark people with a specific goal. The event started when the humanity began to see each other to exchange, to share time together. With the Lending Hand Essay, new generation. A New Era , Better , Event management 1979 Words | 6 Pages. Event Proposal On the 14th December 2010, Trinity University Foundation degree students will be hosting a Multi-skills activity . event , for children from Schools in the local community. The event being proposed is a multi- skills event , which has been organised by solidarity was a group of Lending Hand Essay, 6 undergraduate students who are currently studying in, Supporting Learning: Physical Education and Health. The group have joined together to plan a multi-skills activity event , aimed at Primary School children in right to bear arms years 5. Critical path method , Event management , Event planning 1579 Words | 5 Pages. INDIVIDUAL REPORT A. Brief description about your event Our event is about a valentines party with a twist, because . we invited children from a baranggay.

Our theme is Mickey and Minnie Mouse, even if its a valentines party we made sure that children would love it. We planned the event for a Helping, (3)three month to made it perfect. We invited 15 preschool students together with their (3) three teachers to help us guide the solidarity was, children. Our event titled Spread the a Helping Essay, Love in valentines, we came to this. Mickey Mouse , Minnie Mouse , The Pavilion 907 Words | 3 Pages. Event -marketing As we know company marketing strategy is of education essay, built on Lending a Helping entirely standard set of writing a wedding speech, tools: mass advertising in the media, . A Helping Hand! participation and organization of events , sponsorship, PR support, promotions, direct marketing, etc. Nowadays event marketing being out solidarity was of the Lending, common mix of or Not - That Essay example, ATL BTL and PR is becoming increasingly popular. Thats why it immediately affects several communication channels and successfully complements opportunities to Lending a Helping Essay the above established instruments of direct. Advertising , Brand , Brand management 682 Words | 3 Pages. The process of learning is an on-going event that occurs in each stage of human development. Human beings acquire a great deal of their . personal qualities and characteristics through a variety of different learning methods.

Through the work of educational psychologist Robert Gagne, a better understanding of important determinant of price elasticity is, learning and instruction can be found. Gagne presented the idea that there are different types of learning and that different instructional methods are needed to accompany these learning types. Developmental psychology , Educational psychology , Intelligence 1875 Words | 5 Pages. Event Planning Carson Stokes English Honors 4B Stephens March 29, 2012 Carson Stokes English Honors Stephens March 29, 2012 . The Wonderful World of Event Planning What is event planning? Other than my dream job, event planning is the process of planning special occasions such as but not limited to fairs, parades, weddings, reunions, sweet sixteens, birthdays, graduations, conferences, political rallies, fashion shows, and memorials. Lending A Helping Hand Essay! Event planning includes budgeting, establishing. Event planning , Management , Party 1064 Words | 4 Pages. ? EVENT PROPOSAL DATE : 13 14 DECEMBER 2013 PLACE: STADIUM UiTM SHAH ALAM ORGANIZE BY : STUDENT OF BACHELOR OF SPORT . Or Not Question Essay! MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCE AND RECREATION UiTM SHAH ALAM 1.0 Introduction Now a day, skill of Lending Essay, communication and right to bear arms how to deal with people and Lending public is very important. Based on concern on this matter, we have to take this challenge to right to bear arms organize an Lending, event . This event is an activity will give the experience to students from Faculty of Sports Science.

Public relations 889 Words | 7 Pages. SECTION 12 ORGANISING EVENTS AND PROJECTS It is no accident that this is the last section as many of the writing a wedding groom, skills and Essay knowledge you need to . organise events and projects has been covered in the previous sections. Organising a successful event or project takes good planning, team work and an eye for speech, detail particularly as all activities that involve the safety of people are governed by law. A Helping Essay! How to Action Plan Through action planning you and important of education essay your committee or your team of willing volunteers. Event planning , Form of the Good , Liability insurance 1290 Words | 5 Pages. ?A.

Preparation 1. Lending A Helping! The Rationale (Why must the event be held?) This event entitled I speak to conquer the canada right, world This . seminars must be offered to our dearest fellow lyceans, this seminar event is all about a Helping Oral Fluency and canada to bear Communication skills enhancement that would give to our fellow lyceans the ability to communicate with confidence and encourage them not to hesitate trying to express their self in Lending a Helping foreign language (English) . We as a future pioneers in the field of hospitality industry must. Communication , Event management , Hospitality 1258 Words | 4 Pages. Never Event Oluwatosin Eleyinafe HSA 268 Professor Garcia November 22, 2012 Healthcare facilities are very active institutions. Arms! . Each part must be functioning correctly, from delivery systems and issues of Managed Care and Centers for Medicare and a Helping Essay Medicaid Services (CMS), to the National Quality Forum (NQF). Love's Alchemy! These different parts of healthcare facilities are constantly dealing with many different situations that arise. Lending Essay! Sometimes circumstances that should not take place occur. These types. Health care , Health care in the United States , Health care provider 1823 Words | 6 Pages. ?Asian Games is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. Love's Alchemy! The Games are recognized by Lending a Helping Hand the International . Love's Alchemy! Olympic Committee (IOC) and are described as the Lending a Helping, second largest multi-sport event after the love's alchemy, Olympic Games. In 2006, although Hong Kong bid for the Asia Games did not succeed, but this in turn raised community awareness importance of sport.

More than 10 years have passed, sport in Hong Kong has continued develop, moreover, Hong Kong have successfully hosted and. 2008 Summer Olympics , Ancient Olympic Games , France 1647 Words | 8 Pages. Let's look at some of the key advantages of the proprietary corporate event . When creating a proprietary corporate event , the . marketer has nearly complete control of the customer's experience with the company. You can shape the Lending a Helping Hand, event to suit the needs of canada, your audience and meet your corporate sales and marketing objectives. Corporate events are an excellent venue for Lending, relationship building with key customers, from solidarity was end-users, to technical personnel, to purchasing officials, to Lending senior executives. Business , Customer , Customer service 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Melbourne was held from 15 to 26 March 2006, it was the groom, largest multi-nation sporting event of that year in Lending a Helping Australia, 71 countries and 4500 . Groom! athletes participated in total of 26 sports and 24 disciplines over 10 days of period (Lockstone, 2008). Melbourne is the second largest city in Australia, and its the capital city of Lending Hand, Victoria, known as the city of fashion, gastronomy, greening, entertainment and sports event . Melbourne has named the worlds most livable city by Population Action International. 2006 Commonwealth Games , 2010 Commonwealth Games , Australia 1459 Words | 5 Pages.

Today major sporting events such as the writing a wedding groom, Olympics and Lending Hand Essay World Cup are being held around the world. Or Not To Save - That Is The Question! Hence to accommodate international athletes, . such sporting events have to be organized in Lending Essay large cities having state-of-art facilities. Hosting sports events certainly benefits the host nations which is evident by solidarity was the intense bidding to bag the Hand Essay, rights to host one. Major sporting events bring more to a city than fan excitement. In addition to right the thrills of game action, these events funnel millions of dollars. 1988 Summer Olympics , 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Tutor: Peter Haigh Event Industry Arsalan khan 21146310 Tutor: Peter Haigh Event Industry Arsalan khan 21146310 . Critically discuss the negative and the positive impacts of the London Olympic Games from the perspective of all stakeholders, including the local community, the sponsors, the Lending a Helping Essay, guests, the organisers, the love's alchemy, volunteers and paid workers? Author: Arsalan Khan Module code: TH40009E Tutor: Peter HAIGH Module name: Event Industry Critically discuss the negative and the. 2012 Summer Olympics , Ancient Olympic Games , Germany 631 Words | 3 Pages. question below 2. Lending Hand Essay! Think about speech groom how to organize ideas in each paragraph. Lending A Helping Hand! A) Based on a drama that you have learnt, write about an event . that you like the most.

Provide suitable reasons to support your answers. INTRODUCTION ( P1 ) Name of the important essay, drama name of the event . BODY (P2 ) Brief explanation about the event , the first reason why you like the event . BODY (P3 ) - the 2nd reason why you like it. CONCLUSION (P3 ) Your hope B 1 ) Based on a drama that you have learnt, write about. AirTrain Newark , Instrumental value , Literature 420 Words | 3 Pages. Properly accounting for Lending a Helping Hand, subsequent events is important because investors opinions could be dramatically altered by the events . and transactions that occur after year end. Of Education Essay! If subsequent events are not given proper consideration, the financial statements that are issued at year-end may be misleading.

Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 855 provides guidance on the proper accounting for and disclosure of subsequent events . Due to the potential impact subsequent events may have on the financial statements. Annual report , Balance sheet , Event planning 1188 Words | 4 Pages. shows progress in planning event and Evaluation of the organised event . Essay! For our event , we have ogerniced an . Important Is! exhibition of a Helping Hand Essay, photographs it did take place in Yang Sing Restaurant at 6.00pm on arms the 18th March 2009. In the group of five people which are Anna Wolnik, Anna Lekstutis, Iram Khan, Mariah Arfan and Lending Essay Ashley Huges. The exhibition of photographs what we did prepare was a theme which is called 'the beauty of the city'. We had different photographs taken for important of price of supply is, the event and we arranged for this to.

Coffee , Event management , Event planning 1247 Words | 4 Pages. Computerized Event Planner with SMS Technology for ITSC of STI College Caloocan A Project Proposal Presented to the Faculty of STI . College Caloocan In Partial Fulfillment of the a Helping Hand Essay, Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology by: Ang, Genghis Khan C. dela Cruz, John Carlo A. Lazaro, Julius D. Mr. Bernard Mendiola Project Adviser October 2013 STI College Caloocan ADVISERS RECOMMENDATION SHEET This Project Proposal entitled Computerized. Critical path method , Gantt chart , Genghis Khan 505 Words | 4 Pages. ? EVENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT EV304 404 The Word of Hospitably 2013 Lecturer: Ms. Sofia Rodrigues . Date: 23th May 2013 PGDEM Yicheng (Jason) Wang wayi150590 Contents Introduction Report Purpose In this report, the author will be writing about important determinant elasticity is evaluation of service department in the world of hospitably event . Lending! Then the author will compare with organization and operation to evaluate service department to state whether. Event management , Leysin , Management 1510 Words | 8 Pages. ?The 5 cs of event designing Event is a well organized and well planned happening Concept Costing Canvassing . Customization Carrying out Concept: it is essay, defined as the 1st stage of idea generation on the basis of which the event is a Helping Hand, taken forward or given as well defined shape. Right! The concept plays a very important role as this is at this stage, they are dropped or accepted and Lending Essay it is love's alchemy, only from here that the next 3 stages which of a Helping, costing, canvassing and customization takes place. A good.

Concept , Definitionism , Event management 895 Words | 2 Pages. organise an outside event on behalf of a client and it will look at important determinant of price of supply, some important factors of the event such as the location, the . Essay! number of guests it will be accommodating, special requirements, the of education essay, menu, date and time for the event , staffing and their responsibilities and most of all the Lending a Helping Hand, health and safety of the guests and important determinant of price of supply the staff. Before the event is Lending a Helping, underway I will have to find out love's alchemy what the Essay, clients requirement are. Love's Alchemy! This will help on Lending Hand Essay what skills I will need to canada arms improve on during the event According to. Alcoholic beverage , Coffee , Event management 1798 Words | 5 Pages.

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american art essay African American Art. By Richard Powell. Black Arts Movement, Abstraction, and Beyond. Art's capacity to endow the artist, viewer, and others with self-affirmation and a sense of cultural authority became the benchmark for the BLACK ARTS MOVEMENT of the late 1960s and early 1970s. During this period African American writers, performing artists, and a Helping Essay visual artists made black culture and the political struggles of a wedding speech groom black peoples worldwide their raison d'être. Slogans like Black Is Beautiful and Black Power, as well as jazz and soul music, became the soundtrack for Lending, works by painter Murry DePillars, mixed-media artist Ben Jones, and muralist Dana Chandler. Jeff Donaldson, a cofounder of the Chicago-based black artist collective AFRI-COBRA, not only added to this milieu with his own African textile-inspired, mixed-media works, but he wrote influential art manifestos and helped organize international expositions of determinant elasticity black artists in Africa and North America. Many artists whose careers extended back to the 1930s and 1940s resurfaced with a renewed sense of racial solidarity and political insurgency during the Black Arts Movement. Painters LOIS MAILOU JONES and JOHN BIGGERS and sculptor and printmaker ELIZABETH CATLETT all aligned themselves with the younger generation of black artists, creating works that underscored their shared interest in African design sensibilities, the Lending a Helping Essay black figure, and the continuing struggle for civil rights. For many abstract artists like Frank Bowling, Sam Gilliam, Richard Hunt, BARBARA CHASE-RIBOUD, and Raymond Saunders, critical and commercial success provided evidence that black artists were capable of overcoming racial obstacles and taking their rightfully earned places within the contemporary scene.

These advancements were made all the more emphatic by the achievements of important artists like the Washington painter Alma Thomas, who, at the age of eighty, was the Lending a Helping first African American woman to love's alchemy, have a solo exhibition at a Helping Hand Essay New York's Whitney Museum of American Art in 1972. Artists who subscribed to writing a wedding, a black nationalist agenda argued that Thomas (along with the other well-known black abstractionists) created works that did not challenge the aesthetic sensibilities of the white cultural mainstream. Hand. In response, abstractionists like Al Loving, Ed Clark, Joe Overstreet, Jack Whitten, and solidarity was William T. Williams felt that this line of thinking showed how pervasive more conservative approaches to the visual arts were in African American communities. Both positions demonstrated how difficult it was for Essay, even the most sophisticated art connoisseurs to glean cultural elements out of abstractions. Important. The same myopia often existed in interpretations of works by Lending a Helping Essay, folk artists like CLEMENTINE HUNTER and the evangelist-turned-painter SISTER GERTRUDE MORGAN. As artists and audiences grew more conversant in the diverse ways that one could express black culture, the 1970s and 1980s ushered in a variety of To Save Is the Question example artists and artworks all comfortably operating under the rubric of Afro-American art.

From the photorealism of painter Barkley L. Hendricks and neomannerist stylizations of painter Ernie Barnes to Lending a Helping Hand, the cloth-and canvas accretions of solidarity was mixed-media artist BENNY ANDREWS and altar-like installations of sculptor BETYE SAAR, African American art could no longer be contained in neat, stylistic categories. The important exhibitions of past and present African American art organized by Lending a Helping, curators DAVID C. DRISKELL and Edmund B. The Most Important Of Price. Gaither and the definitive histories and art publications of Elsa Honig Fine, Samella Lewis, and Ruth Waddy helped educate the experts and uninformed public alike on all that might constitute an African American art. African American Art and Postmodernism. By the Hand mid- to late 1980s earlier definitions of African American art would be supplanted by the postmodernist tenets of cultural relativity, art-as-performance, critical inquiries of art and society through one's work, and interrogations of identity, geography, and history. Solidarity Was. Several artistic precursors to this new generation had already begun to Essay, exhibit these more provocative, postmodernist characteristics in their work. For example, by 1975 artist DAVID HAMMONS was already creating sculptures from important determinant elasticity of supply, black cultural detritus (hair, food, artifacts, etc.) that ironically commented on black identity. Around the same time ROBERT COLESCOTT was making outlandish, cartoon-like paintings that poked fun at the art establishment, cultural conservatives, and ethnocentrism. In contrast, conceptual artist Adrian Piper countered the reigning avant-garde of her day with performances that placed racism at the center of art matters. Also at this time artist Houston Conwill wrestled with the notion of a Helping African American space, initially through site-specific earthworks and, later, through culturally informed diagrams and signs. These pioneers of an African American visual postmodernism helped put into motion a different set of visual criteria in contemporary art: models that, in turn, have engendered an innovative group of solidarity was artists.

This inventive group includes sculptors Alison Saar and Renée Stout and Lending Hand photographers Albert Chong and Lyle Ashton Harris, who explore concepts of love's alchemy objecthood and Lending a Helping fetishism; visual artists like JEAN-MICHEL BASQUIAT, Glenn Ligon, and Lorna Simpson, for whom issues of gender and language are central in art; photographers Dawoud Bey, Renee Cox, and Lorraine O'Grady and painters Kerry James Marshall and Howardena Pindell, each of whom presents the black body as a site of theoretical warfare, social research, and desire; and conceptualists like Gary Simmons, KARA WALKER, and FRED WILSON who, through installation art, have problematized American history and love's alchemy the psychology of racism so that display and Lending Hand spectatorship can no longer be viewed as purely innocent acts. Copyright (c) 2005 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Visit the Table of Contents for Resource Library. for thousands of articles and essays on American art, calendars, and of education much more. Copyright 2005 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation.

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essays models stress November 2003 Issue. Thinking processes, reverse engineering and external representations in the generation and application of stress models. By Dr. Lorraine Cleeton, St.

Bonaventure University, NY. This article traces the Hand, progress of students taking a stress management course, in which traditional models of of price of supply stress were presented and new models developed. The students found that traditional stress models were useful only in Lending Essay specific situations, but not transferable to novel outbreaks of - That Is the Essay stress. They thought that this was due partly to differences in definitions of stress. The students found it difficult to Lending a Helping devise new stress models. An examination was made of thinking processes which had been used for generating successful models, in analogous systems suffering from the most important determinant of price elasticity of supply is initial resistance to definition and modeling. Reverse engineering by computer-aided simulation looked to Lending a Helping Hand be one promising route towards generating new models of stress. To Save Or Not To Save - That Is The Question Example? Another was recent research in external representations used for problem solving. It is hoped that this review will encourage the development of Hand transferable models of stress and spin off more precise definition of stressors and strains.

Two major difficulties arose in a course on stress management. Firstly, the students were dichotomized between those who, as clients in stress, had problems themselves and solidarity was those who, as counselors, wanted to help other people. Secondly, the solutions to novel problems presented by the clients were not always amenable to solutions suggested by the counselors. To anticipate this polarization of the students the initial aim of the course had been generalized to Hand Eliminating, minimizing and controlling stress in ourselves and in other people. Adding to the difficulties, a literature review revealed many researchers maintaining that stress has not been precisely defined (Everly and elasticity is Rosenfeld 1981). For the second run of the course, an a Helping, additional aim was added Gaining skills to transfer to solidarity was transfer to new and novel outbreaks of stress. It was hoped that this would facilitate students to counsel people outside those taking the course, but they reported many failures. The aims were screened into a series of objectives against which evaluation was made by assessed tasks following each two-hour session. Although stress has not been precisely defined, assumptions have been made about the effects of a feeling of acute or prolonged anxiety or lack of resolution of conflict. Based on such imprecise definitions, which create more constructs than they eliminate, it was not surprising to Lending a Helping find widespread disagreement among the students in acceptance of such concepts as 'stress-related illness'. Solidarity Was? Students were able to fit appropriate models to the symptoms, but needed tools to develop new models to understand novel stressors.

Finally, it was hoped to answer the question, Does understanding stress through modeling go a long way towards alleviating it? Information overload (Tap and Jug) model. Many people have visions of stress and visions of what would cure it, for a Helping Hand Essay, example, 'If I didn't have so much work to do', 'If my students were well behaved' or 'If my boss would leave'. Most of the students brought along with them the naive model of stress caused by information or emotional overload. This assumes that the organism has just so much to give and writing a wedding that problems arise when that limit is exceeded. Powell and Lending a Helping Essay Enright (1990) called this the 'Tap and Jug' model - Tap and Jug model. The strength of this model lies in simplicity, but its weakness in the variety of capacities of individuals for the most determinant of supply, overload and the variability of their reactions to stimuli (Eysenck 1989). For example, prisoners able to Lending a Helping Essay tolerate confinement and torture may still have a fear of spiders in their cells. - That Is The Essay? In early assignments the students most frequently applied this model as a default, sometimes used legitimately, but more often to fall back on in desperation when other models had failed. Capacity - Demand model. The Tap and Jug model can be made more useful by upgrading it to a Capacity-Demand model, as described by Wycherley (1987).

The aim is not only to Lending a Helping Hand Essay increase capacity, but also potential for increased demand, by love's alchemy, increasing the stamina or robustness of the person. To increase capacity, optimum challenge should be applied, according to the Yerkes-Dodson (1908) Law - This law states that there is a optimum level of challenge - sufficient to stimulate and maintain interest, but not sufficient to cause undue stress. Capacity Demand model. Many people feel stressed when the size of Lending a Helping Essay their workload approaches their perceived capacity for work. Stress increases as more work is added, eventually to canada right to bear arms exceed the perceived capacity. Ideally one hopes that the workload will decrease, but sometimes as a result of the stress we are scarred and our capacity is reduced.

If you come to terms with it or receive counseling, it is Essay, hoped that the To Save Is the Question Essay example, workload might once again just fill the capacity. A better solution would be to achieve more stamina so that there is increased capacity, i.e. the ability to withstand a greater workload in the future - keeping the load within the boundaries of the increased capacity. In the depths of our own stress we all know colleagues we admired who never seemed ruffled by increased workload, or by sudden life changes, and who seemed to have infinite capacity. Against the background of imprecise definition of a Helping Hand stress, the concepts of 'stressors' and 'strains' were discriminated and offered to the students in a cause-effect model. A 'stressor' might be work overload , causing the 'strain' of fatigue. This is illustrated by the. Weight-on-a-Spring model, the Weight representing the solidarity was, stressor and Essay the extension the strain (Russell 1953).

This model was useful when first presented, but the students soon noticed that a strain could switch to being a stressor, leading to canada right arms a chaining effect. For example, the strain of fatigue could become the stressor causing the strain of a weakening family relationship . A stress counselor should enter the chain by defining the stressor and strain at point of entry. There is cost to a client, and difficulties for a counselor, who fails to Lending a Helping find the break-point of entry to a closed loop stressor-strain cycle. The students were given local, national and global suicide and mortality figures, with their relationships to solidarity was variables such as socioeconomic background and marital status . A Helping Hand? This led to writing listings of stress-related illnesses. The students showed wide variation in a Helping Hand Essay their beliefs about solidarity was discrimination and generalization of this concept, which was not surprising given the background of an imprecise definition of stress itself. A Helping? The students understood and writing a wedding speech accepted the Three-Systems Model of behavioral , emotional and physical interaction as described by Powell and Enright (1990), but they barely mentioned it in Hand discussion, counseling or essays. Perhaps the students felt the model to be too nave, obvious or inappropriate, even in conditions where its originators saw its relevance. Perhaps being a textual model it was easily forgotten. However when students failed to observe behavioral, emotional and important essay physical changes at an early stage in a Helping Hand a counseling situation, there were cumulative difficulties in reducing client anxiety.

Type A and B Personalities model. The students realized that their problems could not only be blamed on the environment but on their own reactions and interactions with it. The Type A and B model of behavior traits (Friedman and Rosenan 1959; Glass 1977; Matthews 1982) was introduced. Its categorization was clear, but although the methods for ameliorating excessive bias towards either trait were highly successful with a few students, the model failed with the rest. A new model was proposed for targeting a desirable but hypothetical middle-road Type C behavior and developed by role-play to even more satisfying Types D, E, F - - - and subsequent behaviors, where for example reaction to a novel, unexpected event, shock or emergency situation could be controlled to or Not - That Is the example prevent disablement of Essay thought or action. Assuming attitudes are difficult to change quickly by conventional methods (except by canada right to bear, unfortunate negative shock events), the students found that much practice was needed to reach the higher levels of a Helping Hand C, D, E - - - behavior, beyond the traditional Types A and B. For example, at first, great control is needed to speak slowly when every set instinct tells you to use quick and aggressive response. Teachers are well trained in this technique when faced with challenging students. Ways of affecting more rapid change would need to control or cope with instinctive reactions. Students trained in using suggestion in hypnosis achieved the most rapid results in changing destructive attitudes. Life-Change Units (LCUs) Shock events like bereavement can effect rapid temporary or permanent change.

Illness or accident can trigger a person to initiate a worthy cause to help similar victims. The students completed the Holmes and Rahe (1967) Life-Change Inventory, but found that their reactions to a life-change event were dependent on their hardiness, mental stamina and parental or vocational training - This model suggests that life changes or job changes cause the love's alchemy, stress. Life changes have been placed in Lending Essay a hierarchy. Important Essay? At the top of the list is 'death of a spouse'. 'Christmas' and 'holidays' appear in the list as causing some people stress, even though they are supposed to a Helping Hand Essay provide relaxation. Each life-change item in the list is allocated a score. You add your scores and the total indicates your stress level. Perhaps each profession should develop its own LCUs. To Save - That Is The Question Essay Example? For example, teachers are subject to their own list of Hand internal life changes - sudden changes in collaborative teams, the important of education, curriculum or family problems. Compilation of a complete scored list focused on teaching would be a fruitful piece of research. Test Your Stress Level - Read through this list of life events and write down the Life Change Units (LCUs) value for each that has occurred in the last 12-18 months.

Total your Life Change Units (LCUs). If your score is 150 LCUs or less, your level of stress based on life changes is Lending a Helping Hand, low. If your score is 150-300 LCUs, your stress levels are borderline - you should minimize changes in your life if possible at this time. If your score is solidarity was, more than 300 LCUs your stress levels are high. A Helping Essay? You should minimize other changes in your life if possible and work at instituting some stress intervention techniques. Ranking of Life event. 1. Death of Spouse. 3. Marital Separation. 5. Death of the most important elasticity of supply close family member. 6. Personal injury or illness.

8. Fired from job. 9. Marital reconciliation. 11. Change in health of Lending a Helping family member. 13. Sex Difficulties. 14. To Bear? Gain of new family member. 15. Business readjustment. 16.

Change in financial state. 17. Death of close friend. 18. Change to different line of work. 19. Change in number of arguments with spouse. 20. Mortgage/loan for major purchases. 21. Foreclosure of mortgage or loan.

22. Change in responsibilities at work. 23. Son or daughter leaving home. 24. Trouble with in-laws. 25. Outstanding personal achievement. 26. Spouse begins or stops work. 27.

Begin or end school. 28. Change in living conditions. 29. Revision of personal habits. 30. Trouble with boss. 31. Change in work hours or conditions. 32. Change in residence. 33. Change in schools. 34. Change in recreation. 35. Change in church activates. 36. Change in social activities. 37. Mortgage, or loan for lesser purchase (car etc.) 38.

Change in sleeping habits. 39. Change in number of a Helping Essay family. 40. Change in eating habits. 43. Minor violation of the law. S tress is the body's non-specific response to any demand placed upon it. It is not caused only by negative or adverse influences. Stress increases the rate of wear and tear the body experiences.

Americans spend over nine billion dollars a year to deal with stress. The ritualistic model is related to the load capacity model and to the life change model. It is based on a feeling that things are out of control unless rituals are observed. Eventually this blocks creativity and innovation. The rituals are not confined to writing groom working hours. They start in the morning before work, where events have to take place in Lending Hand a habitual order, or stress is experienced. Of Education? In the stress management course, students were weaned from rituals by setting them a homework assignment to break at first just one ritual. They said it was the most difficult assignment of the course.

Teachers know that a slight change in routine can upset the discipline of a class. A Helping? It might be a snowfall starting or a bird settling outside the classroom window. Perhaps the education system should devote itself in the affective domain to teaching children to react appropriately to to bear arms novel situations, essential for encouraging creativity. Moving animal model. A simple moving animal model was found to be very effective. A tiger was drawn on one overhead projector slide and jungle camouflage on another. The two slides were placed on top of Lending Hand each other on an overhead projector. The animal is only noticed when the overlapping slides are moved relative to each other. The analogy in stress management is that many people are happy to preserve the status quo and only experience stress when changes are made in solidarity was their working life.

This model helped to exercise the detector function described later in Kuhns model (1974). To complement the life change inventory, the effects of cumulative small stressors were examined. Research articles have started to appear showing for example some evidence of a link between these 'microstressors' and depression ( McLean 1976). The students were encouraged to keep a record of these microstressors and the strains which appeared temporally close to them. Many of the Lending, students asked to arms be taught Assertiveness. In its mid-ground between passivity and aggression, or between reactive and proactive response, Assertiveness asks for students to move between these attitudes. Like switching between Type A and Lending Hand B, it was difficult to break lifelong habitual responses to situations. Relaxation techniques were the ameliorating catalyst to change, but some students still found it paradoxical to combine assertiveness with relaxation.

Relaxation was therefore practised both in preparation for being more assertive when rights were infringed and also for arms, defusing the Lending Essay, aggression of other people. For most students extensive role-play and important determinant of price elasticity of supply feedback from external situations effected the desirable responses. Learning curves model. When students realized that stress management would often involve simultaneous changes to themselves and to their environment a return to Lending a Helping the first principles of learning was needed. They had to learn how to learn new responses to stressors. This was difficult because of solidarity was their ritualizations. Cleeton (1991) profiled learning barriers, not only in the cognitive domain, but also in Lending the functional and experiential domains. Functional learning barriers to stress management may be lack of confidence, lack of assertiveness, family problems or conflict between work and home. Experiential learning barriers may be lack of experience in dealing with problems normally arising at work or home. The students were shown examples of learning curves - Curve showing a linear rate of canada right to bear learning.

Curve showing linear learning, but starting from some previous knowledge. More realistically, the following curve shows how many of us learn. It is called the stepped-change model. For example, when we learn how to Essay play a musical instrument, we achieve an elementary level quite rapidly, and then seem to stick at of education, that level and think we will never rise above it. After a number of a Helping Hand steps, we may reach a plateau where we either give up the practice and writing speech learning, or realize that we have reached the limit of our persistence or. Curve showing stepped learning. The following curve reproduces an actual performance by an adult learner. A Helping? At first the learning was ideal, accelerating as knowledge accumulated along an solidarity was, exponential curve a knowledge explosion.

Then the learner discovered a barrier and fell into a discouraging ditch of learning. Lending A Helping Essay? Recovering, but lacking confidence, the learner could not achieve accelerated learning, but only linear learning. A second fall into a wedding groom, a ditch leaves the learner so discouraged that some previous learning could not remembered (a learning block), but eventually recovery took place to reach a plateau of a Helping Hand Essay ability and writing groom persistence. Learning Curve showing actual performance of an adult learner. accelerated (ideal) learning. The following curve shows ideal learning, usually produced by material which is challenging but not anxiety-producing. It shows accelerated learning an exponential rise in achievement with time, knowledge cumulatively capitalizing on Lending Hand Essay previous knowledge, setting off a knowledge explosion.

Ideal Learning Curve. Relating these curves to stress management, students need to strive for ideal exponential learning and avoid ditches and plateau. Stress management involves lifelong learning because novel stressors are always presenting themselves with changes to the individual, the environment and with local, national and global change. Perception and solidarity was Reality model. The author (Cleeton G., 1996) developed terminology to describe learning barriers. Have you ever heard adults or children say, I cant do Math? They are expressing a perceived learning barrier. A Helping Essay? In practice the barrier may be real or illusory . Sometimes a child will say they cant do Math, but be able to manipulate and love's alchemy tell you the statistics of all their teams baseball games. Lending A Helping? In that case the barrier must be to some extent illusory . To Save Question Essay? When adults return to the classroom after a gap of many years, they are often scarred with memories of failure in school, sometimes from bad teaching, for example from teaching abstract before concrete operations.

These scars caused ditches in their learning curves. Hand Essay? Gentle teaching to to bear arms remove the scars and getting them to realize that it was not their fault can relegate their perceived barriers into illusory barriers. Sometimes perceived barriers will be expressed in more serious terms or at Lending a Helping Essay, specific levels. A child might say, I cant do Math, and whats more I never will be able to do it. The Most Important Of Price Is? This suggests that there is a hierarchy of learning barriers. An older learner might say, I cant do complex numbers, and whats more I never will be able to. Before a course starts, a potential student may scan the syllabus and express anticipated learning barriers for the whole or part of it, for example - I anticipate difficulties with genetics. This can cause a damaging mindset. Lending A Helping? Piaget and love's alchemy Inhelder (1971) said, That which is anticipated is more likely to Essay occur - an example of negative or pejorative visualisation. In stress management the tutor needs to demonstrate that many anticipated and solidarity was perceived barriers can be illusory , and also teach how to overcome real barriers.

In preparing lessons we tend to Lending Hand concentrate on motivation to make lessons interesting, but we should also forecast, acknowledge and aim to surmount learning barriers. Learning barriers will be encountered in solidarity was the Substantive (subject matter) domain, for example caused by faulty sequencing of the material. They can also be in the Functional domain, for example caused by disability or family problems. They can be in the Experiential domain, for example caused by lack of practical experience in needed skills. There are several models of Lending a Helping Hand Essay learning barriers. Solidarity Was? Early models by Lewin (1935) showed barriers as obstructing goals, in an environment which was to a greater or less degree permeable. As teachers our role is to set the goal and Lending make the teaching environment as permeable and flexible as possible to surmount the learning barriers. An insidious learning barrier is the discovered barrier. This is neither anticipated before the course starts, nor perceived by the student when the solidarity was, course starts, but is unexpectedly discovered by student and teacher as the course proceeds. Not even the best pre-course syllabus can forewarn potential students about discovered barriers.

Such barriers can approach the learner at high or low speeds, can have fast or slow attacks and fast or slow decays. Their profiles will resemble those generated by music synthesizers Learning barrier with fast attack and slow decay. Learning barrier with slow attack and fast decay. Learners are not particularly realistic about their learning potential. The author (Cleeton, G., 1996) found that they were notorious in their discrepancies between perception and reality. Mostly they were pessimistic, sometimes optimistic. Skilled teaching can bring them into reality without discouragement. Weaknesses were apparent in students' decision-making skills. Essay? They tended to act either in a stereotyped way when faced with novel outbreaks of stress, or at the other extreme would vacillate between trial of different solutions. They also experienced dissonance - avoiding alternatives when a decision had been made and brooding with regret, so salience of their dissonance was not resolved (Festinger 1993). Solidarity Was? Models of learning strategies, decision-making and risk-taking were studied in the context of innovation theory.

The Reality-Perception of Reality model became accepted and was used with success in reducing the discrepancy index (Fisher 1986) between perception and reality. Students also noted discrepancy between perception and reality in conflicts between the conscious and subconscious minds. A client might say, consciously and conventionally, I love my sister, but subconsciously, in Lending regression, say, I hate my sister. Instances of emergence of the child within were sensitized by regression. Problems were reported of childish adults and indeed adult children.

Reluctantly some of these effects began to be recognized by the students as lying within themselves and led to their determination to remove the to bear arms, bugs from their systems before practising stress management on other people. Time management model. The stressors of Lending Hand learning and right to bear arms of meeting targets were approached through time management and just-in-time management, keeping long-term diaries of activities, relaxation and thinking. Reorientation of waking and sleeping patterns were accepted by some students but strongly resisted by others. The possibilities of instant sleeping and waking by suggestion in hypnosis were explored, in conjunction with subliminal learning.

Marionette on Strings model. The human being is a delicate instrument, partly controlled by strings to the different people in his/her life. When one of these people pulls a string that attached to the human being too tightly, the string or the human being can snap and be either mentally, physically or both mentally and Lending physically destroyed. To Save - That Essay? Other people pulling the strings might be able to compensate for this loss, but in some cases the person may have to completely break ties with the stressor. For example, if the stressor is an employer, the person might have to resign to save mental and Lending a Helping Essay physical health. Shifting the Goal Posts model. The person is told to love's alchemy complete a task. Hand Essay? When near completion, the controlling person changes the determinant elasticity of supply is, path and targets of the task.

This causes intense stress because everything done up to this point has to be altered to suit the new instructions. Mountain out of a Molehill model. You have to teach simple material that should only take a few minutes to explain, but fill one hour in time to do it. This is a stressor for teachers, professors, or anyone lecturing. Lending A Helping? Sometimes you are given a topic to talk about solidarity was which in common sense terms can be stated in a few minutes to almost any audience.

You have to stretch this to an hour. You have to Lending a Helping Hand Essay inject stories, personal experiences, etc., but as you listen to yourself (if you could) you are restating the original premise over solidarity was and over until you are completely burnt out. This can make you mentally and physically ill and does not serve as a benefit to your audience either. It is making something more important than it is. Contagion of stress model. Most of us have experience of the weak link in a Helping Hand Essay the chain when working as a team, for canada right, example the Lending Hand Essay, person who holds up the work by not meeting deadlines. When prolonged this behavior can be contagious.

Contagion of stress called for a model based on the two-way spillover of strain between occupation and home (Cooper and Marshall 1976, French and Caplan 1972). This necessitated assembly and modeling of family relationship stressors and Question Essay occupational stressors, and the interaction between them. Power, Role, Task and Person model. Occupational stress was modeled through analysis of the Lending Essay, Power, Role, Task and Person structures of organizations ( Harrison 1972). Their structural strengths and weaknesses were assessed in terms of (i) their stability, (ii) their resistance to change, development or recessional crises and (iii) how individuals of love's alchemy different personality might fare in them, or be matched to a Helping Hand Essay a structure by choice. The following descriptions of the solidarity was, structures are due to Harrison (1972) - The power culture is most often found in small entrepreneurial organizations. A Helping? Its structure can be pictured as a web. The power culture depends on a central power source with rays of power and or Not - That influence spreading out from that central figure. The rays may be connected by functional or specialist strings but the power rings are the centers of power and influences. This organization works on precedent and by anticipating the wishes and decisions of the Lending, central power sources.

There are few rules and procedures and canada arms little bureaucracy. Control is exercised from the center. It is Lending Hand, a political organization in that decisions are taken largely based on the balance of influence rather than on logical or procedural grounds. A power culture can move very quickly and react rapidly to writing threats or opportunities. These cultures put a lot of faith in the individual, little in committees. They judge by results and care very little about the a Helping Hand Essay, means used to obtain results. Size is a problem for power cultures; when they get large or when they seek to take on too many activities, they can collapse. The role culture is called a bureaucracy. The structure for a wedding speech, a role culture can be pictured as a Greek temple.

The role culture works by logic and rationality. Its strength in its its pillars or functional specialties, e.g. the finance department, the a Helping Hand Essay, technical services department, the public services department. The work of the functional departments is contro lled by: The functional departments are controlled at the top by a small group of senior managers (the pediment of the temple). It is assumed that these folks are the To Save or Not To Save - That Is the Essay example, only co-ordinators required if the separate departments do their job as laid down by the rules and procedures and Hand the overall plan. In the role culture, the job description is often more important than the individual who fills it. Individuals are selected for satisfactory performance of a role and the role is love's alchemy, usually so described that a range of individuals can fill it.

Performance above and beyond the Lending a Helping Hand Essay, role prescription is not required and can even be regarded as disruptive. Position power is the major power source; personal power is frowned upon and expert power limited to its proper place. The efficiency of solidarity was this culture depends o n the rationality of the allocation of work and responsibility rather than on individuals. The role organization will succeed very well in stable environments where little changes from year to year and predictions can be made far in advance. Where the organization can control its environment, where its markets are stable, predictable or controllable, the rules and procedures and the programmed approach to work will be successful. Role cultures are slow to perceive the need for change and slow to change even when the need is seen. If the market, the product/service needs, or the Essay, environment changes, the role culture is love's alchemy, likely to continue without change until it collapses or until the top management is Lending Hand, replaced.

Role cultures offer security and predictability to the individual -- a steady rate of ascent up the career ladder. They offer the chance to acquire specialist expertise without risk. They tend to reward those wanted to do their job to a standard. A role culture is frustrating for the individual who is power-oriented or who wants control over his/her work. Those who are ambitious or more interested in results than method may be discontented, except in top management. The role culture is found where economies of To Save or Not scale are more important than flexibility and where technical expertise and depth of specialization are more important than product innovation or product cost.

The task culture is job or product oriented or focused on service delivery. Its accompanying structure can be represented as a net. Notice some of the strands of the net are thicker and stronger than the others. The power and influence in a task culture lies at the intersections. A matrix organization is one form of the task culture. The task culture seeks to bring together the appropriate resources, the right people at Essay, the right level of the organization, and canada right then to a Helping Essay let them get on with it. Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power, although these power sources have an effect. Influence is more widely dispersed than in To Save or Not To Save - That Question Essay example other cultures and each individual in the culture tends to think he/she has influence.

The task culture is a team culture where the outcome, the result, the product of the team's work tends to be the common goal overcoming individual objectives and most status and style differences. The task culture uses the unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to identify the individual with the objective of the Lending Essay, organization. The task culture is highly adaptable. Groups, project teams, or task forces are formed for a specific purpose and groom can be reformed, abandoned or continued. A Helping? The net organization works quickly since each group ideally contains within it all the decision-making powers required. Individuals have a high degree of important essay control over their work in this culture.

Judgment is by results. There are generally easy working relationships within the group with mutual respect based upon capacity rather than age or status. The task culture is appropriate where flexibility and Essay sensitivity to solidarity was the market or environment are important. The task culture fits where the market is competitive, where the product life is short, where speed of reaction is important. The task culture finds it hard to produce economies of scale or great depth of expertise. Large scale systems are difficult to a Helping organize as flexible groups. The technical expert in a task culture will find him/herself working on various problems and in various groups and thus will be less specialized than his/her counterpart working in a role cultures. Control in a task culture is difficult. Control is retained by top management through the canada right to bear, allocation of projects, people and a Helping Hand Essay resources. But little day-to-day control can be exerted over the methods of working or the procedures without violating the norms of the culture. Task cultures flourish when the climate is agreeable, when the product is all-important, when the customer is always right, and when resources are available for love's alchemy, all who can justify using them. ( for example putting a Man on Lending Hand Essay the Moon by 1970 Ed.)

When resources of money and groom people have to be rationed, top management may wish to control methods as well as results. When this happens, team leaders begin to a Helping compete for resources using political influence. Morale will decline and to bear the job becomes less satisfying as individuals begin to reveal their individual objectives. When this happens the task culture tends to change to a role or power culture. The task culture is usually the one preferred as a personal choice to work in by most managers especially those at junior and middle levels. It is the a Helping Hand Essay, culture which most of the behavioral theories of organizations point towards with their emphasis on groups, expert power, rewards for results, merging individual and group objectives. Important Of Education Essay? It is the culture most in tune with current ideologies of change and adaptation, individual freedom and low status differentials. The person culture is an unusual one and won't be found in many organizations but many individuals cling to some of its values.

In this culture the individual is the central point. If there is a structure or an organization it exists only to serve and assist the individuals within it. If a group of individuals decide that it is in their own interests to band together in order to do their own thing more successfully and that an Lending a Helping Hand, office, a space, some equipment, some clerical support would help, then the resulting organization will have a person culture. Architectural partnerships, real estate firms, some research organizations, perhaps information brokers often have this person orientation. Its structure is minimal, a cluster or galaxy of individual stars may be the best picture. As most organizations tend to have goals and To Save Essay objectives over and above the set of collective objectives of their members, there are few organizations with person cultures. Control mechanisms or even management hierarchies are impossible in their cultures except by mutual consent. A Helping Hand Essay? The organization is love's alchemy, subordinate to Lending a Helping Hand the individual and depends on the individual for its existence. The individual can leave the organization but the organization seldom has the power to evict an individual. Influence is shared and the power base is usually expert.

The kibbutz, the commune, the co-operative, are strivers for the personal culture in organizational form. Rarely does it succeed beyond the original creators. Very quickly the organization achieves its own identify and begins to impose it on its individuals. It becomes a task culture at love's alchemy, best, but often a power or role culture. Although there are few organizations with person cultures, many individuals with a personal preference for this type of culture operate in other kinds of organization. Specialists in organization often feel little allegiance to the organization but regard it rather as a place to do their thing with some benefit accruing to their employer. Individuals with this orientation are not easy to manage. As specialists employment elsewhere is often easy to Lending a Helping Essay obtain so resource power has less potency.

They rarely acknowledge other people's expert power. Coercive power is essay, not usually available which leaves only personal power and such individuals are not easily impressed by Lending Hand Essay, personality. Within an large organization different types of cultures may be found as shown in the diagram below: The second diagram (due to Harrison 1972) below points out some of the organization design policies variables that need to be considered when considering the nature of an organization and its fit with its environment. Detector, Selector, Effector model.

Students had by now realized that that success in stress management would not only involve changes in the environment but also changes in solidarity was themselves, with feedback between these two systems. The most sophisticated model introduced to the students was that due to Kuhn (1974). It proposes the organism has Detector, Selector and Defector functions, is Lending Hand Essay, set within its environment and has feedback between these three functions through the environment - A closed system is one where interactions occur only among the system components and not with the environment. An open system is one that receives input from the environment and/or releases output to the environment. The basic characteristics of an open system is the dynamic interaction of its components, while the basis of a cybernetic model is the important, feedback cycle. Open systems can tend toward higher levels of organization (negative entropy), while closed systems can only maintain or decrease in organization. Kuhn suggested that strain arises from neglect, damage or insensitivity in a Helping Essay one or more of the three functions - Detector, Selector and love's alchemy Effector - so the students practised exercises of each function.

Some students preferred textual rather than image presentation of the model. Having applied the Kuhn model, some students were able to inject a fine structure proposed by Lending a Helping Essay, Kuhn, where each of the three functions has its own Detector, Selector and the most important determinant of supply Defector. Although comprehensive, students felt that the model was only Essay, a step towards presentation of a simple magic-key model, similar to the moving animal model, which would be applicable to most situations and spin off a universal definition of stress. Overview of the stress models. Inadequate, makes false assumptions. Inadequate, too specific. Weight on a spring. Defines stressors and strains.

Chaining of - That Essay stressors and strains. Observation of early warning signs. Difficult to remember, too textual for Imagers. Difficult to practise necessary changes. Inconsistent - ignores microstressors. Life change units. Insufficient detail for specific occupations.

Benefits of gaining flexibility. Difficult to Lending break rituals in a short time. Vivid presentation -immediately useful, also later in complex. Useful relationships emerging for depression. Tedious to record Microstressors and love's alchemy their subsequent strains. Confidence-building, overcomes fear of innovation. Student preference to retain destructive status-quo.

Perception and Essay reality. Challenges cherished assumptions. Too textual for Imagers. Recognizes suppressed events. Unpopular for those who must see causal strain-stressor connection. Connects time management with personality.

Needs long-term record-keeping. Marionette on Strings. Involves personal relationships. Tends to absolve individual from love's alchemy change. Shifting the Lending Essay, Goal Posts. Useful for meeting deadlines. Mountain out of a Molehill.

Issues warning signs of stress accumulation. Difficult to disentangle connections. Power, Role, Task and Person. Understanding structure in important of price which one works. Ignores personality clashes within structures. Detector, Selector, Effector. Comprehensive, open to expansion. Complex, suggesting need for simplification. Many stress management courses have had to follow the pattern of counseling based upon vague definitions of stress, which leads to loss of Lending focus. In this course a list of stressors was assembled and existing stress models progressively presented to fit new situations of strain. Diverse models had to writing a wedding be remembered and fitted to Lending a Helping Hand Essay diverse problems.

Students leaving the To Save or Not Is the Essay example, course felt that the necessary transfer to novel outbreaks of stress had not been achieved. Where there was contagion of stress, for example from workplace to home and back to workplace, students often failed to enter or break the vicious circle. As seen by present students the Perception-Reality and Child-Within models offer greatest promise. They cope with variations in life goals. In amelioration of strains they open a way to philosophical and metaphysical discussion of life purpose. They are complementary to regression for examination of suppressed childhood experiences. They bridge traditional and Lending a Helping Hand Essay alternative healing. In the fundamental problem of finding the solidarity was, cause rather than treating the problem, frequently the default has to be that of giving coping strategies for the strain when inability or incompetence has failed to reveal the stressor. Many students felt that previous counseling proposed too close a binding between cause and Hand Essay effect, for example Your fear of water is because you lived near a canal when you were a child. A Wedding? It may be prudent to a Helping Hand consider the possibility that sometimes there may be no such binding - that there is an element of writing a wedding chance whether an unfortunate child event causes adult anxiety, depression or phobia.

If the focal causal event is exposed, for example in hypnotic regression, the strain may be eliminated without there being obvious cause-effect connection. Lending A Helping Hand Essay? Similarly in the human variation of response to right to bear arms events, there may be no relationship between the severity of a problem and the severity of the cause (and therefore severity or duration of treatment). Proposals for new modeling of stress. In the absence of a Helping explicit definition of stress, new models will constantly been needed. This situation is paralleled by other systems in their infancy of stubborn resistance to definition. It may be profitable to step outside the situation to look at a different philosophical or material database. When searching for canada right, the text string model plus generation in Social Science databases, only a few matches were recorded. In contrast, Pure Science databases yielded numerous responses, revealing familiarity with analogous situations, where complex models could mirror mixtures of a Helping Hand thin slices of quantitative data with large slices of qualitative information.

For example, the state space framework was used by Patterson (1995) to apply a model integrating data generation process with data measurement. Methodologies of kinetic modeling and mechanistic studies of complex catalytic chemical reactions have been analyzed by love's alchemy, Gabrielle, Denoroy and Reau (1995). They showed the rationality of a methodology based on advancement and discrimination of hypotheses and Lending Essay gave a review of techniques for hypothesis generation. A combinatorial algorithm and a library of chemical reactions were used. Potthof, Holahan and Joiner (1995) examined a mechanism through which interpersonal vulnerability factors may be linked with depressive symptoms by integrating the stress-generation model with an interpersonal theory of depression. Initial depressive symptoms and love's alchemy initial reassurance-seeking style were positively associated with the occurrence of microstressors.

The results support our students perceived usefulness of the model of accumulation of microstressors. Landis (1994) launched a new series of metropolitan simulation models which replicated urban growth patterns and impacts of development policy. The rationality of the model and the way it has been built in terms of its formal structure, its databases and its decision rules is explained. Our students often failed to disentangle the multiplicity of perceived strains which they experienced and some of them could not weight the importance of multiple macro-strains and microstressors leading to their present anxiety states. This indicates the Lending a Helping Essay, potential for solidarity was, multifactorial modeling, such as used by Rosenheck and Lending Hand Essay Fontana (1994). They used structural equation modeling to explore risk factors for homelessness among war veterans, whose vulnerability was found to be most likely to to a multiplicity of psychiatric and non-psychiatric factors. This would confirm that alleviation of a broad range of stressors needs a broad range of right arms adjustments. Since the Lending Hand, strains defined by love's alchemy, student-counselors in their clients may be wrongly attributed to stressors, the top-down approach to modeling may be the Lending Essay, way forward. The techniques of reverse engineering might be adopted. Puntambekar, Jablowlov and Sommer (1994) presented a review of the techniques available for reverse engineering, with particular emphasis on three-dimensional model generation.

It could be a promising way to introduce programming of the computer to strain-stress simulation and modeling. Reverse engineering is a methodology for love's alchemy, constructing computer-aided design models of physical parts, in Lending Essay circumstances where the drawings of love's alchemy those parts are not available by the normal methods of (i) digitizing an existing prototype, (ii) creating a computer model and (iii) using it to Lending a Helping Essay manufacture the component. An analogy can be seen with strain-stressor relationships in absence of essay precise definition of stress. The criteria for a good model of stress would be simplicity, adequacy to facilitate counseling in Lending Essay known categories and flexibility to cope with new strains. At the base level, models are icons for images to hold a problem in view and remember the connections. Glenberg and Langston (1992) investigated the important essay, building of mental models by using pictures in text, suggesting that a picture might provide relatively easy maintenance of some other representational elements corresponding to parts in the picture, freeing up capacity for inference generation. Perhaps stress models should perform a similar function as a holding and stacking area, ready for landing the stress management and coping skills when the Lending a Helping Essay, problem has been analyzed. Essay? The proliferation of models by brainstorming may be the only path to a definition of stress. Lending Essay? However Kometsky and a wedding speech Markowitz (1978) drew attention to the danger of Lending Hand superficial resemblances when evaluating the problem of goodness of fit of a model. Holyoak and Thagard (1995) have acknowledged the usefulness of analogy in generating creative insights, but drew attention to examples of dangerous errors which can arise.

Mental models have been studied by Rhees (1983), Craik (1973) and Johnson-Laird (1991), who maintained that the mind constructs small-scale models of the most important determinant reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason and to underlie explanation. The models are constructed in working memory (the mind actively interpreting newly presented information and integrating previously stored information) as a result of perception, the comprehension of a Helping Hand discourse or imagination. Their structure represents something about the world and can best be described in the most important determinant terms of problem solving. In problem solving the task of constructing a mental model involves making assumptions about the problem and understanding the meaning of terms in the problem in order to reach a conclusion (solve the problem). However, an alternative model which is consistent with the statement of the problem might be possible. The Theory of Mental Models (Johnson, Laird and Byrne, 1991) predicts that a problem is more difficult to solve if more than one model has to be considered. Additional models impose a load on limited working memory.

External representations (colloquially the rough work we do to make models or solve problems) are in the world as physical symbols (e.g. written symbols, beads of Hand Essay abacuses, etc) or as external rules, constraints or relations embedded in physical configurations (e.g. spatial relations of written digits, visual and spatial layouts of - That Is the Question Essay diagrams, physical constraints in abacuses, etc.). Internal representations are in the mind as propositions, production schemas, mental images and other forms. According to Travers (1993) when one begins a problem-solving task one mentally visualizes and Lending arranges the givens, so all representation commences as internal. Cox and Brna (1995) maintained that concerning the love's alchemy, nature of Lending Hand Essay internal representations, popularly debated within cognitive science, advocates can be found for the position that internal imagery is merely epiphenomenal (concomitant to it). External representations (Ers) are short lived or idiosyncratic. Studies in literacy show the determinant elasticity of supply, important functions of Lending Hand Essay Ers. The classical view on writing, originally developed by Aristotle and presently restated by a wedding speech groom, Bloomfield (1993) and Sassure (1983) is Hand, that writing merely transcribes or re-represents speech from solidarity was one Er in auditory form to another Er in visual form. Pemberton and Sharples (1996) supported the view that Ers are the markings that writers make, singly, or in collaboration, on some external medium such as a computer screen.

They include notes, topic lists, written plans, idea maps, outlines, or tables, concept maps, argument structures and annotations on the draft document in all its stages. An example of an Er is a simple ad-hoc sketch (or even a shape described in the air or via a trace with a finger on a desktop) indicating intentions that are too amorphous to express easily in words. Wood (1992), in his studies of pairs of collaborating authors, pointed the authors to draw a large funnel shape to represent the overall structure of the paper, and Lending Hand later both authors cited different places in this shape when talking about the same parts of the paper. Pemberton and Sharples suggested the Ers could in some instances be too ambiguous and could be resolved by writing down a more precise form of words. When a sample of people is asked to describe their stress by to bear, placing it within a stress model, they give different answers to a Helping Hand Essay what the stress model meant to them as an individual. Student-tutor experiences with stress modeling suggests the need for re-examination of the thinking processes by which subject-independent models are generated both inside and outside this specific field. Promising directions seem to be those of important is reverse engineering and computer-simulation of strain-stressor relationships, and teaching enhanced skills in external representation. These will be the Lending a Helping Essay, immediate directions of future research in solidarity was constructing stress models. Bloomfield L. (1993) Language.

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Holmes T.H. and Rahe R. H. (1967). Lending Hand? The social readjustment rating scale. Journal l of to bear arms Psychosomatic Research, 11,213 --218. Johnson-Laird P. and a Helping Hand Essay Byrne R. (1991) Deduction. Hillsdale , New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kometsky C. and Markowitz R. 1978. Animal models of elasticity schizophrenia. In Lipton M.A., DiMascio A., Killiam K.F. (eds).

Abio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16:495-2512. Kuhn A. (1974) The Logic of Social Systems. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Landis J. D. 1994. Lending Hand? The California Urban Futures Model - Anew generation of metropolitan simulation models. Environments and planning, 21, 4,399 -- 420. Lolas F. (1979). The pertinence of animal investigation for clinical stress research.

Neurobiologia., 42: 185 -- 192. Matthews (1982). Psychological perspectives on the type - A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 91,293-2333. McLean (1976). Depression as a specific response to the most determinant of supply is stress. In Sarason IG and Spielberger CD (Eds.), Stress and Anxiety , Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, pp 297-2321. Patterson (1995).

An integrated model of the data measurements and data generation processes within application to consumers expenditure. Economic Jouirnal, 105, full to Essay wait, 54 -- 76. Pemberton L. and Sharples R. (1996) External Representations in the Writing Process and How to Support Them. Love's Alchemy? AIEd 96 External Representations. Potthoff J.G., Holahan C.J. and Joiner T.E. (1995) Reassurance seeking, stress generation and Lending Hand Essay depressive symptoms -- an integrative model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, 4,664 -- 670. Puntambekar N.V., Jablokow A.G. and Sommer, H.J. Solidarity Was? (1994) Unified review of Lending a Helping 3D model generation for reverse engineering. Computer integrated Manufacturing Systems, 7, 4, 259-268. Powell T. Groom? J. and Enright S. (1990) . Anxiety and Stress Management.

Tavistock. Rosenheck R. and Essay Fontana A. (1994). A model of homelessness among mild veterans of the Vietnam-war generation . American Journal of Psychiatry , 151,3,421 -- 427. Rhees R. and Anscombe G. (1983) Ludwig Wittgenstein, Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics. Russell R.W. Solidarity Was? (1953). Behavior under stress. International Journal of a Helping Hand Psychoanalysis , 54, 1 -- 12. Sassure F. (1983) Courses in General Linguistics London: Duckworth. Travers J. (1993) Effectuve Teaching, Effective Learning. Chicago : Brown and Benchmark. Wood C. (1992).

A cultural-cognitive approach to solidarity was collaborative writing. Cognitive Science. Research Paper CSRP 242, University of Hand Essay Sussex . Wycherley (1997). The Living Skills Pack. South East Thames Regional Health Authority , UK ,P 28.

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Case Study: A Patient With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes and Complex Comorbidities Whose Diabetes Care Is Managed by an Advanced Practice Nurse. The specialized role of nursing in a Helping the care and To Save - That Question example education of people with diabetes has been in existence for more than 30 years. Diabetes education carried out by nurses has moved beyond the hospital bedside into a variety of health care settings. Among the disciplines involved in diabetes education, nursing has played a pivotal role in the diabetes team management concept. Lending A Helping Essay? This was well illustrated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) by the effectiveness of nurse managers in coordinating and a wedding groom delivering diabetes self-management education. These nurse managers not only performed administrative tasks crucial to the outcomes of the DCCT, but also participated directly in patient care.1.

The emergence and subsequent growth of advanced practice in Lending Essay nursing during the past 20 years has expanded the direct care component, incorporating aspects of both nursing and important medical care while maintaining the teaching and counseling roles. Both the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) models, when applied to chronic disease management, create enhanced patient-provider relationships in which self-care education and a Helping Hand counseling is provided within the context of disease state management. Writing Speech Groom? Clement2 commented in a review of diabetes self-management education issues that unless ongoing management is part of an education program, knowledge may increase but most clinical outcomes only Lending Hand, minimally improve. Advanced practice nurses by important of education essay, the very nature of their scope of practice effectively combine both education and Lending a Helping Hand management into their delivery of care. Operating beyond the role of educator, advanced practice nurses holistically assess patients needs with the To Save or Not - That Question Essay, understanding of patients primary role in the improvement and maintenance of their own health and Lending a Helping Essay wellness. In conducting assessments, advanced practice nurses carefully explore patients medical history and perform focused physical exams. At the completion of assessments, advanced practice nurses, in canada right to bear conjunction with patients, identify management goals and determine appropriate plans of care. A review of patients self-care management skills and application/adaptation to lifestyle is incorporated in initial histories, physical exams, and plans of care.

Many advanced practice nurses (NPs, CNSs, nurse midwives, and nurse anesthetists) may prescribe and a Helping Essay adjust medication through prescriptive authority granted to them by their state nursing regulatory body. Currently, all 50 states have some form of prescriptive authority for advanced practice nurses.3 The ability to to bear prescribe and Hand adjust medication is a valuable asset in caring for individuals with diabetes. It is a crucial component in solidarity was the care of people with type 1 diabetes, and it becomes increasingly important in the care of a Helping Hand patients with type 2 diabetes who have a constellation of writing a wedding groom comorbidities, all of which must be managed for successful disease outcomes. Many studies have documented the Lending, effectiveness of canada arms advanced practice nurses in managing common primary care issues.4 NP care has been associated with a high level of satisfaction among health services consumers. Lending A Helping Hand? In diabetes, the canada to bear arms, role of advanced practice nurses has significantly contributed to improved outcomes in the management of type 2 diabetes,5 in Hand specialized diabetes foot care programs,6 in love's alchemy the management of Lending a Helping Hand diabetes in pregnancy,7 and in the care of solidarity was pediatric type 1 diabetic patients and their parents.8,9 Furthermore, NPs have also been effective providers of diabetes care among disadvantaged urban African-American patients.10 Primary management of these patients by NPs led to improved metabolic control regardless of whether weight loss was achieved. The following case study illustrates the Lending a Helping Hand Essay, clinical role of advanced practice nurses in essay the management of a patient with type 2 diabetes. A.B. is a retired 69-year-old man with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes. Although he was diagnosed in 1997, he had symptoms indicating hyperglycemia for 2 years before diagnosis. He had fasting blood glucose records indicating values of 118127 mg/dl, which were described to Lending a Helping Hand him as indicative of borderline diabetes. He also remembered past episodes of nocturia associated with large pasta meals and Italian pastries. At the of education, time of initial diagnosis, he was advised to lose weight (at least 10 lb.), but no further action was taken.

Referred by Essay, his family physician to the diabetes specialty clinic, A.B. presents with recent weight gain, suboptimal diabetes control, and foot pain. He has been trying to lose weight and increase his exercise for the past 6 months without success. He had been started on glyburide (Diabeta), 2.5 mg every morning, but had stopped taking it because of of price of supply dizziness, often accompanied by sweating and a feeling of mild agitation, in the late afternoon. A.B. also takes atorvastatin (Lipitor), 10 mg daily, for hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and a Helping Hand Essay elevated triglycerides). He has tolerated this medication and adheres to the daily schedule. During the past 6 months, he has also taken chromium picolinate, gymnema sylvestre, and a pancreas elixir in an attempt to improve his diabetes control.

He stopped these supplements when he did not see any positive results. He does not test his blood glucose levels at home and expresses doubt that this procedure would help him improve his diabetes control. What would knowing the love's alchemy, numbers do for me?, he asks. The doctor already knows the sugars are high. A.B. states that he has never been sick a day in my life. He recently sold his business and has become very active in a variety of volunteer organizations. He lives with his wife of 48 years and has two married children. Although both his mother and Lending father had type 2 diabetes, A.B. has limited knowledge regarding diabetes self-care management and states that he does not understand why he has diabetes since he never eats sugar. In the past, his wife has encouraged him to treat his diabetes with herbal remedies and weight-loss supplements, and she frequently scans the writing a wedding, Internet for the latest diabetes remedies. During the Essay, past year, A.B. has gained 22 lb. Determinant Is? Since retiring, he has been more physically active, playing golf once a week and a Helping Hand gardening, but he has been unable to lose more than 23 lb. He has never seen a dietitian and has not been instructed in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). A.B.s diet history reveals excessive carbohydrate intake in the form of bread and pasta. His normal dinners consist of 2 cups of cooked pasta with homemade sauce and the most of price is three to four slices of Italian bread.

During the day, he often has a slice or two of Hand bread with butter or olive oil. He also eats eight to ten pieces of fresh fruit per important determinant elasticity is day at Lending Essay, meals and as snacks. He prefers chicken and fish, but it is usually served with a tomato or cream sauce accompanied by pasta. His wife has offered to make him plain grilled meats, but he finds them tasteless. He drinks 8 oz. of red wine with dinner each evening. He stopped smoking more than 10 years ago, he reports, when the cost of cigarettes topped a buck-fifty. The medical documents that A.B. A Wedding Speech? brings to this appointment indicate that his hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) has never been 8%. Lending A Helping Hand Essay? His blood pressure has been measured at 150/70, 148/92, and 166/88 mmHg on separate occasions during the groom, past year at the local senior center screening clinic. Although he was told that his blood pressure was up a little, he was not aware of the need to keep his blood pressure ?130/80 mmHg for both cardiovascular and renal health.11. A.B. A Helping? has never had a foot exam as part of his primary care exams, nor has he been instructed in preventive foot care.

However, his medical records also indicate that he has had no surgeries or hospitalizations, his immunizations are up to date, and, in general, he has been remarkably healthy for many years. A physical examination reveals the following: Weight: 178 lb; height: 5?2?; body mass index (BMI): 32.6 kg/m 2. Fasting capillary glucose: 166 mg/dl. Blood pressure: lying, right arm 154/96 mmHg; sitting, right arm 140/90 mmHg. Pulse: 88 bpm; respirations 20 per minute. Eyes: corrective lenses, pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation, Fundi-clear, no arteriolovenous nicking, no retinopathy.

Lungs: clear to auscultation. Heart: Rate and a wedding rhythm regular, no murmurs or gallops. Vascular assessment: no carotid bruits; femoral, popliteal, and dorsalis pedis pulses 2+ bilaterally. Neurological assessment: diminished vibratory sense to a Helping Essay the forefoot, absent ankle reflexes, monofilament (5.07 Semmes-Weinstein) felt only above the ankle. Results of laboratory tests (drawn 5 days before the office visit) are as follows: Glucose (fasting): 178 mg/dl (normal range: 65109 mg/dl) Creatinine: 1.0 mg/dl (normal range: 0.51.4 mg/dl) Blood urea nitrogen: 18 mg/dl (normal range: 730 mg/dl) Sodium: 141 mg/dl (normal range: 135146 mg/dl) Potassium: 4.3 mg/dl (normal range: 3.55.3 mg/dl) Total cholesterol: 162 mg/dl (normal: 200 mg/dl)

HDL cholesterol: 43 mg/dl (normal: ?40 mg/dl) LDL cholesterol (calculated): 84 mg/dl (normal: 100 mg/dl) Triglycerides: 177 mg/dl (normal: 150 mg/dl) Cholesterol-to-HDL ratio: 3.8 (normal: 5.0) AST: 14 IU/l (normal: 040 IU/l) ALT: 19 IU/l (normal: 540 IU/l)

Alkaline phosphotase: 56 IU/l (normal: 35125 IU/l) A1C: 8.1% (normal: 46%) Urine microalbumin: 45 mg (normal: 30 mg) Based on A.B.s medical history, records, physical exam, and love's alchemy lab results, he is assessed as follows: Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (A1C 7%) Obesity (BMI 32.4 kg/m 2 ) Hyperlipidemia (controlled with atorvastatin)

Peripheral neuropathy (distal and symmetrical by exam) Hypertension (by previous chart data and exam) Elevated urine microalbumin level. Self-care management/lifestyle deficits. High carbohydrate intake. No SMBG program. Poor understanding of diabetes.

A.B. presented with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and a complex set of Lending Essay comorbidities, all of which needed treatment. The first task of the NP who provided his care was to select the To Save example, most pressing health care issues and Hand Essay prioritize his medical care to address them. Although A.B. stated that his need to lose weight was his chief reason for solidarity was seeking diabetes specialty care, his elevated glucose levels and his hypertension also needed to be addressed at the initial visit. The patient and his wife agreed that a referral to a dietitian was their first priority. Lending A Helping Essay? A.B. acknowledged that he had little dietary information to speech help him achieve weight loss and that his current weight was unhealthy and Lending a Helping Hand Essay embarrassing. He recognized that his glucose control was affected by large portions of bread and pasta and - That Question Essay agreed to start improving dietary control by reducing his portion size by one-third during the week before his dietary consultation.

Weight loss would also be an important first step in reducing his blood pressure. The NP contacted the registered dietitian (RD) by telephone and referred the patient for Lending a Helping a medical nutrition therapy assessment with a focus on weight loss and improved diabetes control. A.B.s appointment was scheduled for the following week. The RD requested that during the intervening week, the of education essay, patient keep a food journal recording his food intake at meals and Lending snacks. She asked that the patient also try to estimate portion sizes. Although his physical activity had increased since his retirement, it was fairly sporadic and To Save or Not To Save - That example weather-dependent. After further discussion, he realized that a week or more would often pass without any significant form of exercise and that most of Hand Essay his exercise was seasonal.

Whatever weight he had lost during the determinant elasticity of supply is, summer was regained in the winter, when he was again quite sedentary. A.B.s wife suggested that the two of them could walk each morning after breakfast. Lending A Helping? She also felt that a treadmill at home would be the best solution for getting sufficient exercise in solidarity was inclement weather. After a short discussion about the positive effect exercise can have on glucose control, the patient and his wife agreed to a Helping Essay walk 1520 minutes each day between 9:00 and 10:00 a.m. A first-line medication for this patient had to elasticity is be targeted to improving glucose control without contributing to weight gain. Thiazolidinediones (i.e., rosiglitizone [Avandia] or pioglitizone [Actos]) effectively address insulin resistance but have been associated with weight gain.12 A sulfonylurea or meglitinide (i.e., repaglinide [Prandin]) can reduce postprandial elevations caused by Lending Hand Essay, increased carbohydrate intake, but they are also associated with some weight gain.12 When glyburide was previously prescribed, the patient exhibited signs and essay symptoms of hypoglycemia (unconfirmed by SMBG). ?-Glucosidase inhibitors (i.e., acarbose [Precose]) can help with postprandial hyperglycemia rise by blunting the effect of the entry of carbohydrate-related glucose into the system. However, acarbose requires slow titration, has multiple gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, and reduces A1C by only 0.50.9%.13 Acarbose may be considered as a second-line therapy for A.B. but would not fully address his elevated A1C results. Metformin (Glucophage), which reduces hepatic glucose production and improves insulin resistance, is Lending a Helping Hand, not associated with hypoglycemia and solidarity was can lower A1C results by Lending a Helping, 1%. Although GI side effects can occur, they are usually self-limiting and can be further reduced by slow titration to dose efficacy.14. After reviewing these options and discussing the need for improved glycemic control, the NP prescribed metformin, 500 mg twice a day.

Possible GI side effects and love's alchemy the need to avoid alcohol were of concern to A.B., but he agreed that medication was necessary and that metformin was his best option. The NP advised him to take the medication with food to reduce GI side effects. The NP also discussed with the patient a titration schedule that increased the dosage to 1,000 mg twice a day over a 4-week period. She wrote out this plan, including a date and a Helping Hand time for telephone contact and medication evaluation, and gave it to the patient. During the visit, A.B. and his wife learned to use a glucose meter that features a simple two-step procedure. The patient agreed to use the meter twice a day, at breakfast and dinner, while the metformin dose was being titrated. He understood the need for glucose readings to guide the choice of of education medication and to a Helping Hand Essay evaluate the important of education essay, effects of his dietary changes, but he felt that it would not be a forever thing. The NP reviewed glycemic goals with the patient and his wife and assisted them in deciding on initial short-term goals for Lending Hand weight loss, exercise, and medication. Glucose monitoring would serve as a guide and assist the patient in modifying his lifestyle.

A.B. drew the line at starting an love's alchemy antihypertensive medicationthe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril (Vasotec), 5 mg daily. He stated that one new medication at a time was enough and that too many medications would make a sick man out of a Helping Essay me. His perception of the state of his health as being represented by the number of writing medications prescribed for him gave the advanced practice nurse an important insight into the patients health belief system. The patients wife also believed that a natural solution was better than medication for Lending a Helping Hand treating blood pressure. Although the use of an love's alchemy ACE inhibitor was indicated both by the level of hypertension and by the presence of microalbuminuria, the decision to wait until the next office visit to Essay further evaluate the or Not - That Is the example, need for antihypertensive medication afforded the a Helping Essay, patient and his wife time to consider the importance of adding this pharmacotherapy. They were quite willing to read any materials that addressed the prevention of diabetes complications.

However, both the patient and his wife voiced a strong desire to focus their energies on changes in food and physical activity. The NP expressed support for solidarity was their decision. Because A.B. was obese, weight loss would be beneficial for many of his health issues. Because he has a sedentary lifestyle, is Lending a Helping Hand Essay, 35 years old, has hypertension and peripheral neuropathy, and is being treated for hypercholestrolemia, the solidarity was, NP performed an electrocardiogram in the office and a Helping Hand Essay referred the patient for an exercise tolerance test.11 In doing this, the the most important determinant elasticity, NP acknowledged and respected the mutually set goals, but also provided appropriate pre-exercise screening for the patients protection and safety. In her role as diabetes educator, the NP taught A.B. and his wife the importance of foot care, demonstrating to Lending Hand the patient his inability to feel the solidarity was, light touch of the monofilament. She explained that the loss of protective sensation from Essay, peripheral neuropathy means that he will need to be more vigilant in checking his feet for any skin lesions caused by poorly fitting footwear worn during exercise. At the conclusion of the visit, the love's alchemy, NP assured A.B. that she would share the plan of care they had developed with his primary care physician, collaborating with him and discussing the findings of a Helping any diagnostic tests and procedures. She would also work in partnership with the RD to reinforce medical nutrition therapies and of price elasticity improve his glucose control. In this way, the NP would facilitate the continuity of care and keep vital pathways of communication open. Advanced practice nurses are ideally suited to play an Lending integral role in the education and medical management of people with diabetes.15 The combination of clinical skills and the most determinant of price elasticity expertise in teaching and counseling enhances the delivery of care in a manner that is both cost-reducing and effective.

Inherent in the role of advanced practice nurses is the understanding of shared responsibility for Lending a Helping Hand Essay health care outcomes. This partnering of nurse with patient not only improves care but strengthens the patients role as self-manager. Geralyn Spollett, MSN, C-ANP, CDE, is associate director and important determinant of price elasticity is an adult nurse practitioner at the Yale Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, at Yale University in New Haven, Conn. She is an associate editor of Diabetes Spectrum. Note of disclosure: Ms. Spollett has received honoraria for speaking engagements from Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Aventis and has been a paid consultant for Aventis. A Helping Hand Essay? Both companies produce products and devices for the treatment of diabetes.

2017 by the American Diabetes Association. Love's Alchemy? Diabetes Spectrum Print ISSN: 1040-9165, Online ISSN: 1944-7353 .