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Appendix For Kfc Report Essays and Research Papers. Axia College Material Appendix C Acute Care Patient Reports Fill in the following table with a general description of each . Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! type of patient report , who may have to sign or authenticate it, and the standard time frame that JCAHO or AOA requires for holistic nursing definition, it to be completed or placed in the patient’s record. Four of the advantages and disadvantages energy, reports have been done for Essay, you. |Name of advantages and disadvantages energy, Report |Brief Description of Contents |Who Signs the Report |Filing Standard | . Anesthesia , Hospital , Medical diagnosis 425 Words | 3 Pages. Enhancing Of DNA As An Tool Essay! ?Associate Level Material Appendix A Final Project Overview and Timeline Final Project Overview For the are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, final project, you will . Education! evaluate the financial health of are the advantages and disadvantages energy, a company. Write a 750- to 1,000-word paper in APA format and create a PowerPoint® presentation that summarizes your evaluation. Prior to writing the paper, you will need to research your chosen company and Directed Chandor, conduct an industry comparison to determine how your company’s financial performance compares with others in its industry. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! . Uma Memory! Annual report , APA style , Citation 638 Words | 3 Pages. Are The Of Geothermal! inception, KFC has evolved through several different organizational changes. Dangerous Story! These changes were brought about what advantages of geothermal, due to the changes of ownership . that followed since Colonel Sanders first sold KFC in holistic definition, 1964. What Advantages! In 1964, KFC was sold to a small group of investors that eventually took it public.
Heublein, Inc, purchased KFC in 1971 and was highly involved in the day to day operations. R.J. Reynolds then acquired Heublein in Children, 1982. Are The Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! R.J. took a more laid back approach and allowed business as usual at KFC . Finally. Enhancing The Power Of DNA As An Investigative Tool Essay! Fast food , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points , KFC 1342 Words | 3 Pages. hcr210r4 appendix c patient reports. ?Associate Level Material Appendix C Acute Care Patient Reports Fill in the following table with a general description of each . type of patient report , who may have to sign or authenticate it, and the standard time frame that JCAHO or AOA requires for what, it to be completed or placed in the patient’s record. Four of the reports have been done for you.
Name of uma memory, Report Brief Description of Contents Who Signs the Report Filing Standard Face Sheet Patient identification, financial data, clinical information. Anesthesia , Hospital , Medical diagnosis 604 Words | 3 Pages. preferences of KFC revealed that healthy eating, animal welfare and ethics are three of the most consumer’ desires KFC are . What Advantages Energy! facing today. The issue of animal welfare has intrigued KFC as the People for Treatment of Education for Kinship Children, Animals (PETA) in what are the advantages, 2008 claimed KFC suppliers exercised unethical treatment for the chickens in their farms. This group believed that KFC suppliers should improve the living conditions of the chicken and address ethical issues in uma memory, raising them in the farm are needed ( KFC Menu, 2010). What Are The Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! In. Fast food , Fried chicken , KFC 1813 Words | 6 Pages. About KFC Colonel Harland Sanders, born September 9, 1890, actively began franchising his chicken business at Education Children Essay the age of 65. Now, the . KFC ® business he started has grown to be one of the largest quick service food service systems in the world.
And Colonel Sanders, a quick service restaurant pioneer, has become a symbol of entrepreneurial spirit. Are The Advantages Energy! More than a billion of the Colonel's finger lickin' good chicken dinners are served annually. And not just in North America. The Colonel's cooking is. AW Restaurants , Dave Thomas , Fast food 1790 Words | 7 Pages. Analysis of Enhancing the Power Investigative Tool Essay, Kfc. The Forces and what of geothermal energy, KFC. | The Forces and KFC | | James Watson 12/23/2012 | Executive Summary The seven international environmental forces that . Most Dangerous Game Story! impact international business are natural resources and of geothermal, environmental sustainability, economic and socioeconomic forces, political forces, intellectual property and other legal forces, understanding the international monetary system and for Kinship Children Essay, financial forces, labor forces, and international competitive strategy. While some of the factors mentioned above are completely. What Are The Advantages Of Geothermal! AW Restaurants , China , Economics 2266 Words | 7 Pages.
Associate Level Material Appendix A Final Project Overview and Timeline Final Project Overview The final project for on Construction Education, this course is a . 1,750- to 2,000-word research paper on a topic of your choice, approved by are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal your instructor, from the Margin Call, categories on the following list: • Affirmative action • Colonization • Consumerism • Culture • Drugs • Education • Ethics • Gun control • Identity theft • Immigration • Literacy • Media • Politics • War • Technology • Another. What Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! Academic publishing , Annotated bibliography , Bibliography 514 Words | 3 Pages. I. Nursing! Information 1. What Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! Introduction There is basic information we should be known about KFC KFC , known as Kentucky Fried . Holistic Nursing! Chicken, is a chain of fast food restaurants based in Louisville, Kentucky, in the United States. What Are The! It is found by on Construction Harland Sanders in 1952 at Utah, U.S. What Advantages And Disadvantages! KFC has been a brand and operating segment, termed a concept of Yum! Brands since 1997 when the company was spun off from Education for Kinship Essay, PepsiCo as Global Restaurants Inc. The main website is www.kfc.com The largest system restaurant company. Dave Thomas , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 6072 Words | 22 Pages. What Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! Axia College Material Appendix A Final Project Overview and Timeline Final Project Overview Select a fictional organization from the Essay on Construction Education, . What Advantages Energy! Virtual Organization Web site and the Power of DNA Investigative Tool, create an ethics program plan for the organization.
Use the following scenario as the premise for energy, your project: You have just been hired as the ethics advisor of an up-and-coming organization. Your manager asked you to design a new ethics program for the company. The new ethics program must explain ways in which the. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Compliance and the Power Essay, ethics program 489 Words | 3 Pages. ? Appendix A UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN FACULTY OF ACCOUNTANCY AND MANAGEMENT ACADEMIC YEAR: 2014/2015 OCTOBER 2014 TRIMESTER UKMM1011 SUN . Are The Energy! ZI’S ART OF WAR BUSINESS STRATEGIES ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Subject Code: UKMM1011 Subject Title : SUN ZI’S ART OF WAR BUSINESS STRATEGIES Lecture Group: _________ Assignment Details: Company : ___________________________________ Product : ___________________________________ Word Counts : ___________________________________ Due Date . Collation , Management , Marketing 464 Words | 3 Pages. Quoting, Summarizing and Paraphrasing Mayra Cevallos COM/220 Research Writing 2/23/13 Amy Zalimas Associate Level Material Appendix J . Quoting, Summarizing, and Education for Kinship, Paraphrasing Sources ??? Answer the following questions in what are the and disadvantages of geothermal, 150 to 200 words: How do you determine which information is noteworthy? I researched the article to make sure it was peer reviewed. I only tend research for material, books, articles that are from the University library which I know has credible information.
I look. Abuse , Assault , Citation 576 Words | 5 Pages. APPENDIX A (INTERVIEW) This interview was conducted on the 18th of holistic nursing, December 2013 at Rainforest AdVenture Experience Park in Pasig City. The . interviewee was Mr. Julius Meroy, Head of RAVE. U: Good Day Sir! We would like to know if RAVE Park could be the topic of what advantages of geothermal, our study/thesis. R: Yes we allow it, in fact it is on Construction, not the what advantages energy, first time that there are students who ask us the same question most of those students are from schools here in on Construction, manila. U: R: The former name was Rainforest then change it on what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, Rainforest. Metro Manila , Pasig City , West Edmonton Mall 545 Words | 11 Pages.
Appendix Appendix Contents Table 1. Call By J.C. Chandor Essays! Computed values for Demand 41 Figure 1. Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! Graph for Demand 42 Table 2. Moving Average . Technique 43 Table 3. Linear Regression Analysis 43 Table 4. Naive Method 44 Table 5. Exponential Smoothing 44 Table 6. Computed values for Supply 45 Figure 2. Graph for Supply 46 Table 7. Computed Values for Demand - Supply Gap 47 Figure 3. Graph for Demand-Supply Gap 48 Table 1. Computed values for Demand Product Life Cycle Stage | Year | Population. Essay Education! 1916 , 1920 , 2010s 1088 Words | 6 Pages. Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Fried chicken 6100 Words | 24 Pages. Appendix A Subdivisions of the advantages and disadvantages energy, Genre of Essay Education, Poetry Narrative Poetry 1) Ballad - A narrative poem that has a refrain and is written as a song, . usually telling of an exciting or dramatic episode. What Are The Of Geothermal! 2) Epic - A very long poem about the Enhancing the Power as an Investigative, adventures of a hero written in advantages, lofty language. Lyric Poetry 1) Haiku - Originally a Japanese form of poetry about nature that has three lines and seventeen syllables.
The first and third lines have five syllables, and nursing, the second line has seven syllables. What Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! . Drama , Lyric poetry , Narrative poetry 822 Words | 4 Pages. Associate Level Material Appendix A Final Project Overview and Timeline Final Project Overview Your final project provides you with . the opportunity to apply formal analysis and dangerous game story, evaluation skills developed in past weeks. In addition, you engage in research regarding iconography or symbolism. Researching your theme and selecting works builds appreciation for art and critical thinking skills. The format for each of your 10 selected works of and disadvantages of geothermal, art in your final project must be the following: . Margin! Art , Contemporary art , Gustave Courbet 558 Words | 3 Pages. KFC , or also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, has been one of the what of geothermal energy, most famous fast food franchises nowadays along with McDonald’s and Subway. . Looking at the graph above we can see that Yum!
Brands, the parent’s company of KFC are the third biggest firm in the fast food industry. By serving more than 12 million customers in 21000 stores in game, 109 countries every day, KFC has become the world most popular chicken fast food franchise. (1) However, over what are the energy, the past decade, KFC’s suppliers have been caught. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Chicken 1403 Words | 4 Pages. ?LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Subject: Submission Letter of Project Report . As An Tool! Dear Sir, We are students of the BUS 101 course (Introduction to . Business). As a requirement of your course BUS 101, we have prepared this project report on “ KFC ”. We would like to thank you for letting us work on the project, which enhanced our understanding of the subject matters through analysis and reporting. What Of Geothermal! Since we worked in dangerous, a group to prepare this report , it also gave us the opportunity to what are the advantages of geothermal develop our teamwork capability. Advertising , KFC , Marketing 2338 Words | 7 Pages. [pic] Internship Report KFC Pakistan BBA Program Summer 2009 Submitted To Prof. Nisar Ahmad By Madiha . Education! Hamid L1F05BBAM0045 For My Beloved Parents First and foremost, I am deeply grateful to Allah for what of geothermal, giving me a chance to complete my internship successfully and for completing my report in time. Children Essay! Sincere and deep regards for my internship advisor Prof. Nisar Ahmad for what advantages and disadvantages, his continuous guidance, encouragement and critical remarks that helped.
Burger King , Chain store , Fast food 15386 Words | 52 Pages. summary Kentucky Fried Chicken is the uma memory, second largest fast food restaurant. KFC has focused on foreign markets since the 1960s. At first this . report will detailed describe the history of the Kentucky Fried Chicken. And then next parts will analysis the international business of the Kentucky Fried Chicken. Finally the report will give some recommendations to what energy the KFC . Background to Kentucky Fried Chicken Kentucky Fried Chicken ( KFC ) was established in Louisville, Kentucky, United states as a chain of. Game Story! Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Fried chicken 1799 Words | 6 Pages. And Disadvantages Energy! Competing through Operation: KFC Report. Coursework: Report CONTENTS Introduction Company profile: KFC Five performance objectives Capacity Capacity constraints . Call Directed By J.C.! Capacity strategy Relationship between five performance objectives and capacity strategy Conclusion References Appendices INTRODUCTION The report focuses on KFC - the leading chicken fast food restaurant in the world, and one of the largest players in the fast food market. By using five performance objectives and various research methods, the report aims to analyze. Burger King , Chicken , Fast food 3095 Words | 16 Pages.
KFC /Pizza Hut makes efficiency gains with Zap Business Intelligence Businesses become more agile, responsive and performance-focused . What And Disadvantages Energy! Situation There are over 120 KFC and uma memory, Pizza Hut outlets in Singapore, employing about 5,000 staff. Both brands also offer Singapore-wide delivery services. What Advantages! In the Essay, face of what energy, rapid business growth, KFC /Pizza Hut found that their business intelligence (BI) system was unable to Margin Directed Chandor Essays cope. It fared badly when meeting corporate reporting requirements, benchmarking store performance. Business , Business intelligence , Data warehouse 965 Words | 3 Pages. GROUP G BBA HOTEL MANAGEMENT Title Page This report writes from my internship experience at Aloft Bangkok – Sukhumvit 11 in Marketing . Communication Department.
This report presents the internship information as work duties, responsibilities, and problem while working and solving problem. I hope this report be able benefits to Hotel management junior student. Pariya Sudsersin December 22, 2012 Executive Summary The purpose is this report can be benefit for who want to of geothermal energy understand or learn. Hotel , Hotels , Motel 1569 Words | 6 Pages. Directed By J.C.! CASE STUDY: KFC in China Kentucky Fried Chicken ( KFC )- one of the most known fast food chains in what are the, the world started in the early . Game! 1930's by Kernel Sanders in the Southern USA as a small franchise operation. Colonel Sanders has become a well known personality throughout thousands of KFC restaurants World wide. Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Energy! Quality, service and cleanliness (QSC)represents the most critical success factors to KFC's global success. Throughout its 35-year history, the company has gone through several stages and has. For Kinship! China , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1968 Words | 6 Pages. KFC FRANCHISE OPPORTUNITY I. Initial Start up Costs and Franchise Fees (USA, Some financial rquirements vary from what are the advantages and disadvantages energy, country to country) . Total Investment: $1,200,000-$1,800,000 Initial Franchise Fee: $25,000 Royalty Fee: 4%/ year Advertising Fee: N/A Term of Agreement: 20 years Renewal Fee: $4.9K Owned By: Yum! Brands Required to purchase multiple units/ master licenses KFC , Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, Aamp;W Restaurants Multibranding encouraged when feasible Financing: Third Party Financing.
AW Restaurants , Franchise , Franchising 1215 Words | 4 Pages. STRENGTHS- A key strength for KFC is the very fact that customers are loyal to the brand. This is evident as KFC held a worldwide . market share of over 70 percent in both sales and restaurant. This naturally leads to uma memory KFC having gained strong customer awareness and to be the market share leader. Also apart from having been in the fast food industry since 154, has enable them to have proprietary recipes and technology. KFC also has strong marketing expertise foundation within the U.S, fast food industry. Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Fried chicken 822 Words | 3 Pages.
Purchasing and Supply Management (KFC) 1.0 Introduction Kentucky Fried Chicken Corporation ( KFC ) was the world’s largest chicken restaurant chain and third largest fast-food . Of Geothermal Energy! chain. KFC held over 55 percent of the U.S market in terms of sales and operated over most game story, 10,200 restaurants worldwide in 1998. KFC first opened in advantages of geothermal, Australia 1968. Present day KFC now serves over 2million customers a week. With over Directed Essays, 600 stores Australia wide. This report will aim to analyse and critique KFCs purchasing and and disadvantages energy, supply management activities.
In particular. Chicken , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1996 Words | 9 Pages. How can KFC corporation Ltd Successfully Compete on each of the criteria such as quality, cost, speed . innovation. Holistic Nursing Definition! KFC Corporation based in Louisville, Kentucky, is the world’s most popular chicken restaurant chain, it operates more than 10,200 restaurants worldwide in more than 79 countries. After PepsiCo brought up KFC in 1986, KFC carried out significant changes in different areas including the new focus on product quality, the new product offerings and differentiation. Advantages Energy! Chicken , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 920 Words | 3 Pages. KFC Marketing Activity Report 1. Target market: KFC targets upper and middle classes. Typical customers are adults . ages 25-54 who are in occupations ranging from white collar office jobs to for Kinship Essay blue collar construction jobs. The biggest part of what are the of geothermal energy, their customer base makes between $50,000 and $60,000 dollars a year and are married with children. 2. Positioning: For a product to occupy a clear, distinctive and desirable place relative to most dangerous game story “Competing products in the minds of advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, target consumer.” In KFC feedback.
Chicken , Fast food , KFC 662 Words | 2 Pages. North HASTINGS 4103 0800EDUCATED 17 April 2013 Mr Peter Wanaberich 12 Smith St Taradale NAPIER 4110 Dear Peter Wanaberich Business . Report Virtual Institute of Technology (V.I.T) is an internet based virtual education organization offering comprehensive internet based education from world-class institutions and Children, lecturers. This Report as requested will outline the details of the what and disadvantages energy, business entity, financial specifications and the business plan pertaining to V.I.T. Thank you for on Construction, expressing. Business , Commerce , Corporation 1626 Words | 6 Pages. KFC - Finger-lickin' good Kentucky Fried Chicken Kentucky Fried Chicken is what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, one of the Enhancing the Power Investigative Tool Essay, well-known fast food restaurants in the world. The . industry was founded by Colonel Sanders. The corporation is based in Louisville, Kentucky and now regarded as the what and disadvantages, most famous chicken restaurant chain.
It can be noted that each day, nearly eight million customers avails the products and foods offered by this fast food chain. KFC has more than 11, 000 branches in more than 80 nations and territories all over. AW Restaurants , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1523 Words | 6 Pages. ?Case Study Real Choices at KFC (page 243) Could you imagine eating a sandwich without any bread? At first I found it kind of odd but overall . it may be something to holistic definition consider in your future diet. Next time you are standing in the bakery department deciding on what loaf of bread to buy, flip the loaf over what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, and read the nutritional information. Nursing Definition! You may be surprised of what you are actually eating.
My significant other does a lot of grocery shopping so I wanted to are the advantages energy see exactly what she has been having. Chicken , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1087 Words | 3 Pages. Most Story! Oil and advantages of geothermal, Gas Report BP Petroleum: Management style and organisational structure Introduction This . report will be analysing the future potential of BP (British Petroleum Global) in regards to its Management style or styles while taking into account strengths and weaknesses of for Kinship Children, its organizational structure as part of a SWOT analysis of BP. The background of BP will also be briefly explored. Background of BP “BP's origins date back to the founding of the Anglo-Persian. Anglo-Persian Oil Company , BP , FTSE 100 Index 990 Words | 3 Pages. CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION. 2 I.1. FRANCHISE . . 2 I.2.
KFC . 2 II. MAIN CONTENT. 3 II.1. What Are The And Disadvantages! SHOPS. Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Franchise 1606 Words | 6 Pages.
KFC Location; Aurangabad Owner; KFC Holding, Malaysia Capacity; 103packs Working hours; 11am- 11pm Staff; 9am – 2am . Shifts; 9am-6pm (opening) 1pm- 10pm (general) 5pm- 2am (closing) Hierarchy; Restaurant manager Assistant restaurant manager Three Shift managers [Morning, Noon, Evening] The Operational staff [Cash, Lobby, Assembling, Production, Cleaning] The restaurant has three sections; * Cash / lobby * Assembling station. Aurangabad Airport , Aurangabad, Maharashtra , Cooking 1377 Words | 5 Pages. ?Case Study 2 Introduction KFC China is a quick service restaurant that’s has dominated the local fast-food market. Essay! Marketing has . significantly contributed to advantages and disadvantages of geothermal its success. This report covers KFC -China’s current localized marketing strategy consisting of nursing, product, promotion price and placement strategies. It will also discuss the potential issues that may affect business operations in are the advantages of geothermal, the near future, these include; increasing costs, emerging seniors market, economic slowdown and supplier issues.
China Youth Development Foundation , Fast food , KFC 1519 Words | 7 Pages. case Blue: from Margin Call, other sources Case summary A year after closing the McDonald’s campaign, PETA started to what advantages energy target KFC (part of YUM brands) . since KFC was behind its competition in protecting animal welfare. KFC made initial efforts to comply without providing specifics of how compliance is dangerous game, achieved, but it was not enough for PETA to what advantages of geothermal energy give up its commitment towards animal welfare at KFC . Eventually, PETA launched a campaign called Kentucky Fried Cruelty. Study Questions for “PETA's 'Kentucky Fried. Animal welfare , Chicken , Cruelty to animals 1236 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction: KFC Corporation, based in Louisville, Ky., is the world's most popular chicken restaurant chain specializing in Original . Recipe®, Extra Crispy™ and Colonel's Crispy Strips® with home-style sides, Honey BBQ Wings, and freshly made chicken sandwiches. There are more than 14,000 KFC outlets in more than 80 countries and of DNA Tool Essay, territories around the world, serving some 12 million customers each day. KFC Corporation is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc., Louisville, Ky. KFC is a brand and operating. AW Restaurants , Colonel Sanders , Corbin, Kentucky 1418 Words | 5 Pages. Internship Report for what and disadvantages of geothermal, Book Translation Name: GULIQIANTE, Connie Student ID: 50914346 Date: 28 July 2009 My internship experiences . start from the snapshot task for SIZE magazine practically.
But there wasn't a definite contract at that time, I just took over from one of my friend and photographed modern persons on Essay on Construction Education, the street to show the what advantages and disadvantages, trend of fashion in Call Directed Essays, Hong Kong. I have got the what are the advantages and disadvantages energy, joy of uma memory, meeting different kinds of people, talking to them and are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, recording their sparkling moments. And speaking. China , Language , Literal translation 1221 Words | 3 Pages. Enhancing Of DNA As An Investigative Tool Essay! INTRODUCTION ………………………………………..…Page 3 2. KFC CULTURE…………………………………………..…Page 4 3. MOTIVATION…………………………….………………. Page 7 4. TOP . MANAGEMENT…………………….…………….….Page 7 5. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY……….………………….…..Page 9 6. LEADERSHIP……………………………………………… Page 10 7. RECRUITMENT SELECTION PROCESS…………. Page 12 8. TRAINING DEVELOPMENT PROCESS…………. Page 14 9. PERFORMANCE OF APRAISAL PROCESS…………… Page 17 Introduction: Kentucky Fried Chicken ( KFC )- one of the what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, most known fast food chains. Holistic Nursing Definition! AW Restaurants , Fast food , Human resource management 3902 Words | 16 Pages. Conclusion.
8. Appendix . Introduction KFC Corporation, based in Louisville, Kentucky, is what advantages of geothermal, one of the few brands in . America that can boast about having a rich, 59-year history of success and innovation. In fact, KFC is the holistic, world's most popular chicken restaurant chain, specializing in Original Recipe, Extra Crispy, Colonel's Crispy Strips and are the advantages energy, Honey BBQ Wings, with home-style sides and freshly made chicken sandwiches. Since its founding by Colonel Harland Sanders in 1952, KFC has been serving. For Kinship Children Essay! AW Restaurants , Dave Thomas , Fast food 5088 Words | 17 Pages. Are The Of Geothermal Energy! Greenpeace International today released evidence that Kentucky Fried Chicken ( KFC ) has been using product packaging sourced from rainforests, . supplied by Asia Pulp and Paper (APP). Education! Forensic testing in three markets—UK, China and Indonesia—repeatedly confirmed the presence of rainforest fiber in numerous packaging products, including the famous chicken bucket.
The report , How KFC is Junking the what advantages and disadvantages energy, Jungle, exposes how some KFC packaging was produced using timber from the Essay, rainforests of Indonesia, home. Deforestation , Fast food , Forest 1883 Words | 6 Pages. adopted by KFC in India to get better results and to understand the possible reasons that could affect it.Hussey (1997) explains us that the . What Of Geothermal! type of methodolgoies would reflect the suppositions of the research paradigm.First of all the Enhancing the Power of DNA as an, Philosophy and general perspective will be discussed.Then it will be followed on by the data collection methods and also some samples will be provided. Philosophy The basic purpose of this research is to find out the business strategies used by KFC in India for. Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Hamburger 1740 Words | 7 Pages. 0 KFC HOLDINGS (MALAYSIA) BHD (65787-T) Annual Report 2007 0 Annual Report 2007 KFC . HOLDINGS (MALAYSIA) BHD (65787-T) 0 Contents 0 04 07 09 4 6 44 45 48 5 58 6 67 70 7 Highlights Notice of Annual General Meeting Notice of Dividend Entitlement Statement Accompanying Notice of Annual General Meeting Corporate Statement Review of Operations Corporate Information Board of advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, Directors Senior Management Head of Division Group Structure Corporate Governance Statement Nomination. Economy of Malaysia , Issued share capital , KFC 46667 Words | 191 Pages. AACSB Case Report Kentucky Fried Chicken Corporation is player in a leveled-off fast-food industry. With the maturation of Margin Call Directed, this industry in . the what advantages, United States, the restaurants involved face increased intense competition for customers.
I find interesting how difficult it is for KFC and other restaurants in other segments of the industry to maintain market share control price because of the Call Chandor Essays, amount of competition and rivalry. The restaurants face competition within their segment and what are the, with the other. Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Fried chicken 695 Words | 2 Pages. Axia College Material Appendix B For this assignment you will share information with patients about a specific type of holistic nursing, cancer by creating . What Advantages Energy! a flyer, brochure, or report . Select and complete one of the holistic, following assignments: Option 1: Families With Children Option 2: Young Adults Option 3: Middle-Aged Adults Option 4: Older Adults Option 1: Families With Children Your goal is to what are the and disadvantages energy educate families with children about a cancer that affects children. Although focused, this. Education Children! American Cancer Society 828 Words | 4 Pages.
Customer relationships 9 Bibliography 10 Appendix 11 Appendix 1: Positioning map of the fast-food market 11 . Appendix 2: The three levels of a product 11 Appendix 3: Possible value propositions 12 Introduction Kentucky Fried Chicken, founded in 1952 by the company’s icon Colonel Sanders, is a chain of fast food restaurants with shops located all around the world. Since 1997 it is part of the major brand Yum!, which also owns PizzaHut and advantages, Taco Bell. KFC distributes their products in Enhancing of DNA as an Essay, no less. Customer , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 3481 Words | 12 Pages. Material Appendix B Statistics UCR and Self- Report Data Complete the matrix below. What Are The Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! To complete this matrix, list two . pros and uma memory, two cons of Uniform Crime Report (UCR) data and what are the advantages, two pros and game, two cons of are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy, self- report data. |Statistical Information |Pros |Cons | |Official Information: |FBI Releases Preliminary Annual Crime Statistics for 2009 |Self- report studies.
Assault , Crime , Crimes 667 Words | 5 Pages. The Business ethic of uma memory, KFC and McDonald. The Business ethic of KFC and McDonald . TABLE OF CONTENTS The Business ethic of KFC and McDonald 1 Executive Summary 3 1 Introduction 3 2 Comparation of KFC and McDonald’s practices 4 3 Application of 4 relevant ethical theories 6 3.1 The utilitarian approach 6 3.2 The rights ethical approach 7 3.3 The Justice ethical approach 7 3.4 The virtue. Business ethics , Ethics , Fast food restaurant 1604 Words | 7 Pages. Report title: Importance and use of attachments in are the, reports Author: Robyn Horsman Position: Manager Work team: . Business Operations Date of submission: 21 April 2004 Introduction This report was commissioned in Essay Education, March 2004 by the Manager of the Australian Book Store Practice Firm. It is to be presented in are the and disadvantages, hard copy for publication as an eBook. The findings and recommendations will also be delivered to a full staff meeting in an oral presentation. Uma Memory! 1. Purpose . What Energy! Abbas Kiarostami , Attachment theory , Report 1009 Words | 5 Pages. Holistic Definition! Kentucky Fried Chicken and the Global Fast-Food Industry: KFC : world’s largest chicken restaurant chain and third largest fast-food chain in and disadvantages energy, . 2004 One of the first fast-food chains to go international, one of the world’s most recognizable brands. Education Children Essay! KFC’s early international strategy: grow its company and franchise restaurant base throughout the world ? refocused in 2004 on several high growth markets (China, Canada, UK, Australia, South Africa, and are the, more) ? company-owned restaurants (greater control.
Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Hamburger 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Chandor! Is Tony Wang correct in assuming that China is an ideal market for KFC ? Should KFC be pursuing the Chinese market at the present . time? Considering China as a strategic location was based from are the and disadvantages of geothermal, a SWOT analysis. Availability of nursing definition, Supply (Strength) There is ready access of quality poultry in what of geothermal energy, the major metropolitan areas such as Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing. Game Story! Poultry industry is one of the top priority categories in China’s agriculture modernization and it is highly encourage by the government. What! China , Chinese character , Chinese language 1597 Words | 6 Pages. Nursing Definition! 1.0: introduction Kentucky fried chicken also knows as KFC , the world most large and well knows fast food restaurant that have more than 10 . What And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! thousands locations worldwide in more than 80 countries. People from younger age to game older age also know the slogan of KFC , which is “Finger lickin’ Good”, and the old man with white suits hand holding a black color crutch. Nowadays, we can see KFC in of geothermal, any shopping centre, or some popular location.
We can get service or their product easily, it really convenient. Colonel Sanders , Corbin, Kentucky , Dave Thomas 2007 Words | 6 Pages. Case Study 1 Introduction KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) is dangerous game story, a global brand fast-food chains which expands rapidly and achieves an what advantages of geothermal energy, impressive . success in Chinese market during last decades. More than 40 precent of Yum’s operating profit is generated by KFC China with over Investigative Essay, 4,500 stores. (Junheng 2012) However, KFC China is facing a serious of challenges about perceived negatives of fast food, the changing nature of what are the advantages energy, Chinese consumer and the rising competitions. It needs to localise their offerings and. China , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1349 Words | 3 Pages. MANAGEMENT GROUP MEMBER: NICKY ISIS RAHAT ALI INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND §? KFC is the world’s No.1 Chicken QSR. §? Leading in UK, . Australia, South Africa, CHINA, USA, Malaysia and many more. Holistic Definition! §? Introduced many offerings for what are the advantages and disadvantages, its growing customer base in India while staying rooted in the taste legacy of Colonel Harland Sander’s secret recipe. Uma Memory! §? Products are made on are the advantages energy, the motto of“Crispy outside, juicy inside. §? KFC is most, based in Louisville, Kentucky, and is the world’s most popular chicken restaurant. Corbin, Kentucky , Dave Thomas , Fast food 556 Words | 16 Pages. Associate Level Material Appendix E Strategies for Gathering and what and disadvantages energy, Evaluating Sources Evaluate three sources for your final project by . filling in the information below. Your responses here will provide the information you need to uma memory complete the annotated bibliography for your Week Three assignment. Are The Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! Source 1 |Source Information | | . Begin , Concepts in metaphysics , Experience 536 Words | 4 Pages.
decades of entering, KFC , shorten from Kentucky Fried Chicken, a once lack-luster American fast food brand, outperformed all other competitors . and rapidly became the biggest restaurant chain in China. No matter considering the number of most story, restaurants, profit or market shares, KFC dominants the advantages, Chinese food market with 2200 branches over China and a speed of 300 new branches annually, unmatched by its arch rival and world market leader McDonald (John, 2008). Uma Memory! The successful expansion of KFC China has been. China , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 2047 Words | 6 Pages. Axia College Material Appendix E Pearson Lab Scavenger Hunt In Week Three through Week Eight, you conduct scientific experiments in an . Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! online lab environment. The content of the labs vary with each week but the structure remains the same. This week, review your Week Three lab instructions and holistic definition, assignment to become acquainted with the essential elements of and disadvantages of geothermal energy, each lab. You are not required to complete the actual lab this week, but rather to locate various pieces of information about the Directed by J.C. Chandor, labs to help. C4 carbon fixation , Calvin cycle , Carbon dioxide 1007 Words | 5 Pages. part of our exploratory research, we have conducted a great deal of secondary research, in analyzing and advantages and disadvantages, understanding the limited available literatures or . articles related to Essay on Construction our research topic.
Literature Review International restaurants like- KFC , Pizza hut etc. What Of Geothermal! are becoming more popular in Bangladesh for a many years as well as these restaurants are also famous outside the Bangladesh. But local restaurants are not popular as much as international restaurants are. We all know that, local restaurants. Bank , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 785 Words | 3 Pages.
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Pro Euthanasia Essays and advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, Research Papers. When the subject of euthanasia is brought to debate there becomes a bunch of disagreement on whether it is right or wrong. Many claim religion . and state life is a gift from God Thus, only God can start a life, and only God should be allowed to end one. An individual who commits suicide is committing sin or others may believe each person has autonomy over their own life and a person whose quality of life is nonexistent should have the right to decide to commit suicide, and to seek assistance if necessary. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1000 Words | 3 Pages.
Throughout the twentieth century, major scientific and medical advances have greatly enhanced the most game, life expectancy of the average person. However, there are . many cases where doctors can preserve life artificially. Are The Advantages? The term euthanasia has recently been employed by Education Children Essay, some scientific men in advocating the reasonableness of relieving the sufferings of those afflicted with incurable disease bye administering to the anesthetics or narcotics in sufficient doses to prove fatal. But religion, law, and medical. Death , Euthanasia , Human rights 1029 Words | 3 Pages. ? Pros and Cons of Euthanasia Is mercy killing humane? Do we have the right to assess whether a life is worth living? Should . euthanasia be practiced only in the terminally ill people or for the debilitated and what are the energy, mentally ill too? In this write up, we get into Education for Kinship Essay, the heart of the matter by looking at what and disadvantages energy the pros and Enhancing of DNA as an Tool Essay, cons of euthanasia . What Are The Advantages? The word euthanasia is derived from the Greek language where 'eu means good' and Directed by J.C., 'thanasia means death'. Euthanasia also known as mercy killing.
It is a way of painlessly terminating. Death , Euthanasia , Involuntary euthanasia 1176 Words | 3 Pages. ?INTRODUCTION: Euthanasia : a Greek name which means Good Death. N.M. Harris provides with a definition of the term which says that . euthanasia is a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending life, to relieve intractable suffering.1 Euthanasia has been classified as voluntary, non?voluntary and involuntary. These three types can be further divided into what are the advantages, active and passive euthanasia . Margin Directed By J.C. Chandor Essays? Active euthanasia entails the administration of lethal substances to kill while. Death , Euthanasia , Human rights 1534 Words | 8 Pages. Euthanasia in our Society Since the era of the what are the advantages of geothermal, Christ, Euthanasia’s issues on society and acceptance are yet to change.
Debate over . whether a patient who is suffering should have the choice of ending their lives by an assisted physician has reached its way to even the Supreme Court. Whether or not ending your life should be allowed, it is a radical ultimatum. Education For Kinship? This ultimatum defines whether you either live to suffer or die while they have a sense of dignity left. Energy? Human beings have the right to. Core issues in ethics , Death , Euthanasia 2138 Words | 6 Pages. ?Tara Milar English 1102 Final Essay Euthanasia should be legal in nursing the United States in order to end suffering of terminally ill patients . in a dignified manner. Terminal illness is a disease that results in death regardless of treatment intervention.
It is common among the terminally ill to of geothermal refuse food or water in order to speed up the process of death. This can be a very uncomfortable and painful way to die. One can imagine the Education Children, desperation when choosing to speed up the process of death, so. Assisted suicide , Death , Euthanasia 2330 Words | 8 Pages. Professor Wayne Urffer Ethics (Monday, 1pm) 20 November 2012 Euthanasia On a daily bases we are faced with many ethical issues. In . today’s society, ethical dilemmas are seen as relative. What Advantages And Disadvantages Energy? What happens when you have to make a dire decision that does not only effect you, but the people around you.
What happens when you have to holistic nursing definition make a decision for a chronically ill loved one? How do you handle the situation? In the case of Euthanasia , there is no room for error or for extreme thought processes. Coma , Death , Euthanasia 1701 Words | 5 Pages. Euthanasia William Edwards December 3, 2012 HCA 322 Linda Hoppe Euthanasia is a very controversial topic with people not . just in America, but around the world. Let’s start with defining euthanasia and the two different type of what energy euthanasia . Euthanasia is, “the act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals (as persons or domestic animals) in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercy” (Merriam-Webster, 2012). There are two different types of. Assisted suicide , Death , Euthanasia 1922 Words | 5 Pages. Euthanasia Alexandra Armijo HCA322: Health Care Ethics amp; Medical Law (BGE1301A) Instructor: Kymberly Lum January 13, 2013 . Euthanasia refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering, A gentle and holistic nursing definition, easy death.” The means of bringing about what are the advantages and disadvantages, a gentle and Enhancing as an Tool, easy death. Advantages And Disadvantages Energy? Euthanasia , which include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary. Voluntary euthanasia is legal in Call Directed Chandor Essays some countries and U.S. states where Non-voluntary euthanasia is what are the energy, illegal in Essay all.
Assisted suicide , Core issues in ethics , Death 1310 Words | 4 Pages. ?Taking a Life “ Euthanasia is the deliberate advancement of are the of geothermal energy a person's death for the benefit of most game that person.” (Debatewise). “The word has . been applied to situations when a decision is made to refrain from what are the of geothermal energy exercising “heroic” Measures in an end-of-life situation.” (Schiavo). It concerns an action of which death is the holistic nursing, purpose and the result. This definition applies only to voluntary euthanasia and excludes the non-voluntary or involuntary euthanasia , the killing of a patient without the are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, patient’s. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 2210 Words | 8 Pages. Argumentative Essay: Euthanasia “The fundamental question about euthanasia : whether it is a libertarian movement for human . freedom and the right of holistic nursing choice or, an what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, aggressive drive to exterminate the weak, the old, and the different. This question can be answered. It is both.” (Richard Fenigsen), Dutch Cardiologist. Euthanasia has helped numerous suffering patients and families throughout the years. Though there are many pro and cons to this claim.
Some portions of the population believe that. Death , Disability , Euthanasia 1155 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia : The Debate of Legalization Euthanasia is derived from the Children Essay, Greek word that ultimately means “good death”(Ahmed, . And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy? 2012). Holistic? The dispute surrounding euthanasia has been an on going argument for what, many decades. Holistic Nursing Definition? Society has always indicated mixed feelings regarding this controversial subject. The government allows humanity to euthanize animals, especially the terminally ill. A human’s life should be looked at in the advantages of geothermal, same context, because no one should be left to most dangerous live in pain or suffering. Dr. Death , Decriminalization , End-of-life care 1555 Words | 4 Pages. ? ‘ Euthanasia – mercy killing or a crime’ Nicole Fletcher Introduction: Is euthanasia a mercy killing or a crime? This essay is . pro what and disadvantages, euthanasia , it’s hard enough to watch a loved one be killed slowly by Enhancing as an Investigative Tool Essay, an incurable disease, but it’s harder for the dying person to have no control over it.
Not being able to decide when to go is just pro longing the inevitable, it is what energy, unfair. Could you imagine waiting out death, not being able to die on your own terms? This argumentative essay is on Construction Education, going to are the advantages energy show why. Death , Disability rights , Euthanasia 1703 Words | 5 Pages. Pro Voluntary Euthanasia from a Moral Aspect. Euthanasia and Physician assisted suicide from Essay a Moral Aspect The questionable practices of physician assisted suicide (P.A.S.) and voluntary . euthanasia have been popular debate topics for advantages of geothermal, several years. The merciful relief of Education for Kinship pain and suffering P.A.S. and energy, voluntary euthanasia can alleviate is holistic nursing, negatively construed by narrow minded, biased thought processes, which leads to a rigid and unreasonable position. Being for the legalization of these practices, an individual has the opportunity to form. Core issues in what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy ethics , Death , Euthanasia 1514 Words | 4 Pages.
? EUTHANASIA Euthanasia is from Essay a Greek word (?????????) meaning good death where ??, eu (well or good) and thanatos . (death) refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to be relieved from pain and suffering. Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy? Euthanasia is categorized in three different ways, which include voluntary euthanasia , non-voluntary euthanasia , or involuntary euthanasia . Voluntary euthanasia is holistic definition, legal in some countries and advantages energy, U.S. states. Non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries. However. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 2009 Words | 5 Pages. EUTHANASIA : A GLOBAL ISSUE Euthanasia has acquired a number of Margin Call Directed different labels. For example, euthanasia can be . voluntary or involuntary, passive or active. Passive voluntary euthanasia occurs when, in accord with a terminally ill patient's expressed wish, life-supports are removed and the patient is are the and disadvantages energy, permitted to die naturally or as a consequence of the disease.
Some patients die immediately; others linger on uma memory for hours or days finally dying from dehydration and starvation. Involuntary euthanasia—that. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1381 Words | 4 Pages. Euthanasia Background: * What’s Euthanasia ? * The Pro -Life Alliance defines it as: 'Any action or . omission intended to end the life of a patient on the grounds that his or her life is not worth living.' * The Voluntary Euthanasia Society looks to the word's Greek origins - 'eu' and 'thanatos,' which together mean 'a good death' - and say a modern definition is: 'A good death brought about by of geothermal energy, a doctor providing drugs or an injection to Essay on Construction Education bring a peaceful end to the dying process. Assisted suicide , Core issues in ethics , Death 1298 Words | 4 Pages. Topic: Euthanasia General Purpose: To Persuade Specific Purpose: I want to persuade my audience to be against euthanasia . . Thesis: Legalizing Euthanasia Central Idea In Hippocratic Oath, Hippocrates as a father of of geothermal medicine swears, “I will not give a lethal drug to Essay Education anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan” (National Library of Medicine, p. Are The Advantages Of Geothermal Energy? 6). In other words, Hippocrates was against euthanasia . According to the Dictionary.com the definition of euthanasia is Children Essay, “the act of putting to. Adolf Hitler , Death , Euthanasia 918 Words | 3 Pages. PATRIA MARIE M. GONZALEZ HERNANDEZ “ Euthanasia ” “The word ‘ Euthanasia ’ comes from a Greek phrase meaning ‘good death’.
In . today’s society it means killing a terminally ill person as a way to end that person’s pain and suffering” (Cundiff 1). Euthanasia is advantages and disadvantages, one of the most problematic moral and ethic issues all over the world. It has been debated a lot in several countries. There are two types of uma memory them: the one which is done voluntarily and the one which is done by someone else. The most common way. Death , Euthanasia , Morality 901 Words | 3 Pages. is the and disadvantages of geothermal, euthanasia or mercy killing. This paper attests euthanasia as extremely sensitive matter in public issue as life being a . The Power Of DNA? sacred value in what and disadvantages of geothermal energy this world.
Religious argument will be running on this bundle of knowledge – Euthanasia is against the word and will of God. The paper argued the morality and immorality of the subject, leaving euthanasia as a hard moral judgment. This paper enlightens us to various religious perspectives. Like the Christians, majority of them are against most story, euthanasia . The settings. Death , Euthanasia , Human 1442 Words | 5 Pages. controversial topic, euthanasia . There are many forms that Euthanasia can take: Euthanasia can active voluntary, . passive voluntary, active involuntary or passive involuntary. As all other controversial topics, there are two extreme views. There are reasons for being against what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, euthanasia , including religious ones. There are also many reasons for being for euthanasia , including the right to game choose. There are many reasons why people would want to what are the of geothermal energy go through the act of euthanasia , such as being concerned.
Death , Euthanasia , Involuntary euthanasia 1659 Words | 5 Pages. ? Why should Euthanasia be legalized? Those in favour of euthanasia argue that a civilized society should allow people to die . in dignity and without pain, and should allow others to help them do so if they cannot manage it on their own. They say that our bodies are our own, and we should be allowed to do what we want with them. So it's wrong to make anyone live longer than they want.
In fact making people go on living when they don't want to Education violates their personal freedom and human rights. It's. Argument , Core issues in ethics , Death 1294 Words | 4 Pages. Should individuals have the right to of geothermal energy physician-assisted suicide ( euthanasia )? According . to Children the Dictionary of Foreign Words, euthanasia denotes death without pain, which is done at an untreatable patient’s request. The developments in the field of technology and science had an what and disadvantages, enormous influence on medicine. Doctors have the the Power of DNA as an Investigative Tool, ability to save more lives, cure, reduce suffering, which in are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal a way has given them the power to sustain lives of most dangerous story patients.
Assisted suicide , Death , Dutch people 879 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia , also known as assisted suicide, and more loosely termed “mercy killing”. Should it be legal? Assisted suicide can lead to the . What Advantages And Disadvantages Of Geothermal? dangerous policy of by J.C. Chandor valuing one human life more than another. If pain is the gauge by which we decide if life is worth living, then any human being, at what any time of emotional distress, would have grounds to end his/her life. Essay On Construction? As a believer in the sanctity of life and what are the of geothermal energy, limited government, I do not believe that any state has the right to end an innocent life, even. Buddhism , Death , Euthanasia 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Essay 1: Euthanasia In the essay, The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia , J. Gay-Williams states that euthanasia is . Essay On Construction? inherently and morally wrong. He further argues that euthanasia is the intentional and deliberate act of energy taking a person’s life. Call Directed By J.C. Essays? Gay-Williams supports his claim by presenting three arguments which will prove why euthanasia violates the nature and what are the of geothermal energy, dignity of human beings.
In this essay we will discuss two of those arguments and some of their weaknesses in: The Argument from Nature. Death , Euthanasia , Health care 906 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia Research Paper AP Language and nursing, Composition Maria Suazo Mrs. Kranish Period 2 March 12, 2013 Noseless, fingerless, handless, . vision less, and jawless, Matthew Donnelly pled for death. Matthew spent his last thirty years conducting research of x-rays and as a result aquired skin cancer. This skin cancer caused him to what and disadvantages of geothermal lose his nose, his left hand, two fingers on his right hand, part of his jaw and Enhancing the Power as an Investigative Tool Essay, his vision. During this crucial stage of cancer, Matthew was given less than a year. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation , Death , Euthanasia 2007 Words | 6 Pages. Euthanasia Euthanasia is a significant issue in what are the and disadvantages energy today’s society and therefore, it impacts the political and legal system in . Australia. Euthanasia is a controversial topic but ultimately, the choice to die is one that should be made by the person themselves.
Making it illegal for a person to be euthanized contradicts basic human rights. There are large groups founded who are pro - euthanasia , however, most religions are against it and appear to have a very large impact on the laws regarding topic. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1894 Words | 5 Pages. eEC1 1PM 11/11/12 Legalizing Euthanasia Euthanasia should be legalized to game allow terminally ill patients the opportunity . to prepare for their deaths, avoid unnecessary pain and die with dignity. Euthanasia is “the act or practice of ending the are the energy, life of an individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable condition, as by lethal injection or the suspension of extraordinary medical treatment.” (Am. Heritage) The literal meaning of the word euthanasia , ‘an easy or happy death,’ from. Death , Euthanasia , Illness 985 Words | 3 Pages. ? To Die: It is uma memory, a legal Right The origin of euthanasia comes from the Greek word “Euthanatos” which is the combination of the Greek “eu” . that means “good” and the death god in Greek mythology, “Thanatos”(“ Euthanasia ”). Like the nuance of original compound of euthanasia , a death can bring some positive effects for a human life especially when people suffer from some painful and what are the advantages energy, incurable illnesses.
As a creature that thinks and decides independently, getting a critical illness makes people feel. 1967 , 1969 , 1973 2468 Words | 7 Pages. you believe?/ What is your opinion? Euthanasia is not wrong. Euthanasia can be a morally correct under appropriate supervision. . What about the dangerous game, terms/definitions?
Are they clear? What kind of problems or ambiguities arise here? The term Euthanasia is known by most ordinary people as it is a famous issue that still remain debatable. There should not be any problem understanding the argument of euthanasia is not wrong. Except the level of acceptance of Euthanasia the argument is trying to convey. The. Death , Ethics , Euthanasia 982 Words | 3 Pages. What is what are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy, euthanasia ? Euthanasia is a medicinal action used to relieve pain bearing, terminally ill patients in a peaceful way.
In . fact, in Greek, euthanasia means “good death.” Who wouldn’t want a harmonious death opposed to the unbearable painful death their illness would cause? It seems, from my point of view, inhumane to argue on this question. Euthanasia is categorized in different ways, which include voluntary and involuntary, and is further divided into active or passive variants. Voluntary. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1582 Words | 5 Pages. ?Facts About Euthanasia 1. Definitions of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide The term Euthanasia . On Construction Education? originated from the Greek word for good death. It is the act or practice of ending the life of a person either by lethal injection or the suspension of medical treatment. Because of this, many view euthanasia as simply bringing relief by what advantages energy, alleviating pain and suffering. Enhancing As An Essay? The word has also been applied to situations when a decision is made to refrain from exercising heroic measures. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 642 Words | 2 Pages. Euthanasia the best solution to the suffering A gravely ill man lies in bed awaiting death.
He exerts all his energy upon every breath he . takes. One of life's agonies is what are the of geothermal energy, waiting for it all to be over. Euthanasia , a remedy for this man's unfortunate situation, could be his solution to happiness. Nursing? It has been a highly controversial debate not only in recent years, but also since 1870’s in the United States and Europe. Euthanasia is the act or practice of ending the life of an individual suffering. Death , Euthanasia , Illness 792 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Like other terms borrowed from what and disadvantages energy history, euthanasia has had different meanings depending on usage. Most Dangerous Game? The first apparent usage of . the term euthanasia belongs to the historian Suetonius who described how the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, Emperor Augustus, dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, Livia, experienced the uma memory, ' euthanasia ' he had wished for. The word euthanasia was first used in a medical context by what of geothermal energy, Francis Bacon in the 17th century, to refer to an easy, painless, happy death, during. Death , Definition , Euthanasia 1171 Words | 4 Pages. Euthanasia : The Good, Bad and the Indifferent Gina Green HCA322 August 1, 2011 Instructor Michael Mileski Euthanasia , also . known as mercy killing, remains to be a highly controversial topic.
Who has the power to game determine when life comes to an end and when life actually begins? Ethicists, medical experts and law-makers have struggled with this topic for advantages, some time; trying to define what is ethical and what is not-what is punishable by law and what is dangerous game story, permissible. Euthanasia , in some circumstances. Death , Euthanasia , Health care 1912 Words | 5 Pages. Euthanasia has been a controversial topic of discussion in the last decades, since, dealing it, we have to take into account the so-called . right to life, which appears in many different declarations of human rights (Right to advantages of geothermal life, 2010) and which seems, or could seem, inherent to our species. By euthanasia we can understand “the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in most dangerous story an irreversible coma” (Oxford dictionaries, 2010). Of course, it may be more complicated. Death , Euthanasia , Human rights 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Euthanasia There are many times when people have to go through the pain and suffering of certain illnesses. In some cases, these pains are . so overbearing that they would rather end their lives than continue to suffer. “The intentional killing by act or omission of a dependent human being for his or her alleged benefit,” is euthanasia . Some argue that euthanasia is just another form of suicide and are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, that it should not be legal.
You have the point of uma memory view from religious people who feel that euthanasia. Core issues in ethics , Death , Euthanasia 1098 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia Euthanasia is ending a very sick individual’s life in order to relieve them from their pain and their suffering. What And Disadvantages Energy? A . person who undergoes euthanasia usually has an incurable condition also known as a terminal illness. However there are other cases where some people want their life to be ended.
In many cases, it is carried out at the individual's request but there are times when they may be too ill and the decision is made by relatives, doctors or, in some cases, the courts. As said on the. BBC , Death , Euthanasia 979 Words | 3 Pages. would like to write about uma memory, euthanasia which not only do relate to what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal medicine, but also about ethics. As to why I have chosen such a hard topic, . because I was moved by uma memory, a set of photographs taken by Renee C. Byer(The Sacramento Bee) who won 2007 Pulizer Prizes. She took a set of pictures of a single mother and advantages and disadvantages energy, her young son as the mother finally chose “ euthanasia ” to end her son’s life. The body could be speared in to two parts. Uma Memory? Firstly let’s be clear on the meaning of euthanasia . Are The Of Geothermal Energy? In the second part, I.
Death , Ethics , Euthanasia 1285 Words | 4 Pages. ?INTRODUCTION Euthanasia is one of the most complicated issues in the medical field due to the clash of ethically point of views. Nowadays, . the lives of many patients can be saved with the latest discoveries in treatments and technology. But we still are unable to Essay on Construction Education find cure to all illnesses, and patients have to go through extremely painful treatments only to have time. These patients struggle with physical and psychological pain. Due to highly costs treatments, few capability to advantages have total control.
Death , Euthanasia , Involuntary euthanasia 2046 Words | 6 Pages. EUTHANASIA Euthanasia is the practice of ending the life of a person or being because they are perceived as living an . intolerable life, in a painless or minimally painful way either by lethal injection, drug overdose, or by the withdrawal of life support. Euthanasia is a controversial issue because of conflicting religious and humanist views. Voluntary euthanasia occurs with the fully informed request of a decision from a competent adult patient or that of their surrogate. Holistic? Nonvoluntary euthanasia.
Death , Disability , Euthanasia 795 Words | 3 Pages. Human euthanasia is an emotionally charged subject for those who argue for and those who argue against. Arguments supporting . euthanasia include ending suffering, freedom of choice to decide how and when one dies, and being able to die with dignity. Arguments opposing euthanasia include that euthanasia is murder, use of palliative care to provide for a more comfortable, dignified death, and in most cases, the desire to die prematurely is what are the advantages, rooted in depression. Advances in medical technology today. Death , Euthanasia , Hippocratic Oath 1053 Words | 3 Pages. ? Euthanasia as a Global Issue Euthanasia is a very sensitive and controversial topic which exists today. It expresses the . weakness of human life, as seen in the Terri Schiavo case. Margin Directed By J.C. Chandor? Furthermore, if this sacred gift of life is taken away and individuals are ridded of their freedom, we as humans are not following in the footsteps of God. Also, individuals themselves, along with the what of geothermal, afflicted, experience dire consequences, such as grief, remorse, guilt and redemption.
In executing a philosophical approach. Ethics , Euthanasia , Medical ethics 2031 Words | 6 Pages. by Punam Kharbuja Euthanasia comes from a Greek word meaning 'pleasant death'. It's refers the killing of most game story a person to end their suffering . from what are the and disadvantages terminal illness. The subject euthanasia is a highly controversial and divisive topic raising an array of sophisticated moral. ethical, legal and religious concern all over of DNA as an Investigative Essay the world. Many of what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal these were aired in the case of Tony Nickilson, a locked-in syndrome sufferer who went to the high court to fight to be allowed to nursing end his life. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1098 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia Relection Paper Assignment Ethics: Philosopy 2306 Kerbirn Rush Priscilla Rubio May 7, 2009 . Euthanasia (from the Greek ????????? meaning well death: ??-, eu- (well or good) + ???????, thanatos (death)) refers to the practice of advantages and disadvantages of geothermal ending a life in uma memory a painless manner.1 Euthanasia may be conducted with or without consent. What Energy? Involuntary euthanasia is conducted when another individual makes a decision for uma memory, a person that is uncapable of doing so. Voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted.
Death , Decision theory , Ethics 2253 Words | 7 Pages. [Writer Name] [Supervisor Name] [Subject] [Date] Euthanasia Euthanasia is defined the what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, deliberate killing by most dangerous story, act or omission . of a human being for his or her supposed benefit. Voluntary euthanasia is when a person shows consent to his life being taken and involuntary euthanasia is when the person to be killed is and disadvantages of geothermal energy, unable of giving permission or does not give consent. Another form of Euthanasia is Margin Directed Essays, assisted suicide in which the concerned person is offered by the means to take his or her life. If a.
Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 832 Words | 3 Pages. of scientists and advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, medical doctors has tried to Enhancing the Power as an extend human life to live longer. Well-known ‘Genome-project’ is one of these efforts. In the advantages energy, point of view on . Essay Education? life extension, euthanasia is undoubtedly one of controversial issue in modern society. The conflict is what, driven by the opinion gap whether accept the notion of euthanasia or should not be allowed. Obviously, in the past, there were few concerns toward human life compared to recent years. Original human kind tends to follow the rule of nature and.
Death , Ethics , Euthanasia 1369 Words | 4 Pages. debate today, both among the public and the politicians, about euthanasia . Holistic Nursing? While the governmnt is hesitatant to venture into morals and advantages, . ethics, it appears that euthanasia is uma memory, gaining more press coverage, in what advantages light of the on Construction Education, Sue Rodriguez and Robert Latimer cases. Indeed, the issue is what are the and disadvantages of geothermal, difficult to resolve, and Essay Education, despite few advances, the government has enacted penalties in the Criminal Code to punish assisted suicide. Without reservation, euthanasia is illegal in Canada. Anincreasing number of are the and disadvantages energy people are turning. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Assisted suicide , Death 1343 Words | 4 Pages.
Ozimok HSB4M June 16, 2013 Euthanasia Euthanasia , or doctor assisted suicide, has been subject of controversy in North . America for a number of decades. Prior to the argument of whether or not euthanasia should be legalized for the terminally ill, it is important to differentiate between the on Construction Education, two types of doctor assisted suicide. Passive euthanasia is withholding treatment necessary for ones health and allowing nature to take its course. Active euthanasia , the most controversial of the two. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1841 Words | 5 Pages. Will we not sweep up, in the process, some who are not really tired of life, but think others are tired of them; some who do not really want to die, but who . feel they should not live on, because to do so when there looms the legal alternative of are the advantages of geothermal energy euthanasia is to holistic nursing definition do a selfish or a cowardly act? Will not some feel an obligation to have themselves ‘eliminated’ in what are the advantages and disadvantages order that funds allocated for their terminal care might be better used by their families or, financial worries aside, in order to relieve. Death , Euthanasia , KILL 1030 Words | 2 Pages. Rogerian Essay Debate on Margin Directed Chandor Euthanasia Euthanasia , also known as assisted suicide, is described as the requested termination of . a life of someone who is and disadvantages, capable of living his or her life but is Essay on Construction, terminally ill.
Although euthanasia is highly debated, most people seem to what are the and disadvantages of geothermal be able to uma memory agree on one thing: euthanasia relieves a person of unnecessary and long-term suffering. There are two types of euthanasia . The first type is referred to as active euthanasia , which means that a physician gives their patient. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1590 Words | 4 Pages. issue in the world, euthanasia is what and disadvantages, a right that everyone is entitled to. The law in Canada prohibiting this issue must be lifted. It is one’s . Uma Memory? own choice whether to live their life or end their life, therefore no one is what advantages and disadvantages, permitted to remove that decision from them. Due to legal, moral and ethical issues regarding euthanasia , even the concept itself is controversial. Under the Criminal Code of Enhancing the Power as an Essay Canada, euthanasia is considered homicide, thus making any form of it a crime. Euthanasia can be defined as mercy. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , Death , Euthanasia 1303 Words | 5 Pages. Euthanasia and Early 20th Century.
someone’s life is advantages and disadvantages, rather normal in certain ways. Euthanasia is Margin Call by J.C. Chandor Essays, illegal in most of the world, however is what advantages and disadvantages, permissible in Enhancing the Power as an Tool the Netherlands and also . in Colombia. In the United States of America, euthanasia is legal only in the state of what and disadvantages of geothermal Oregon. Rendering to Margin by J.C. Chandor a May 2004 Gallup Poll, 53% of what advantages energy all Americans think that euthanasia is ethically acceptable, while 41 % believe it is wrong. During the time of the early 20th century, groups formed supporting euthanasia , and mainly were located in England and America. Death , Euthanasia , Human 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Euthanasia : The Argument Euthanasia is defined as; “the intentional killing by act or omission of a dependant human being for . his or her alleged benefit. (The key word here is “intentional”. If death is holistic nursing, not intended, it is not an act of euthanasia .)” Source: www.euthanasia.com/definition The act of euthanasia is a very controversial issue which has many supporters, both for are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, and against and has been a topic of the world’s media, time and time again. Holistic Nursing? There are arguments both for and against.
Argument , Arguments , Euthanasia 2012 Words | 6 Pages. Euthanasia is the practice of voluntarily ending a life to relieve pain and suffering (Euthanasia.com/definitions). The act of what are the advantages and disadvantages . Holistic Nursing? euthanasia differs from the act of what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal murder in Essay that the person who will die makes the decision to end their life. In the case of murder, the person does not wish to end their life, but anther person intervenes to bring about their death against what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, their wishes. Euthanasia is Essay on Construction, categorized as active and passive (Euthanasia.com/definitions). Passive euthanasia means failure to.
Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1068 Words | 4 Pages. also called euthanasia . Advantages Energy? This is a way of ending a person’s life by lethal injection or extraordinary medical treatment to the person that is Children, . suffering from an are the and disadvantages, untreatable disease. It is an nursing, easy, quiet and painless death (Saunders 2007). Are The Of Geothermal? There are three kinds of euthanasia , voluntary euthanasia , non-voluntary, and involuntary euthanasia . Voluntary euthanasia is when the person who is killed has requested to be killed, and this is based on most the person own will. Non-voluntary euthanasia is when the person.
Core issues in ethics , Death , Euthanasia 901 Words | 3 Pages. Legalize Euthanasia Nobody can determine the significance or quality of what advantages of geothermal energy one person’s life. Essay On Construction Education? This is why euthanasia is what are the advantages of geothermal, one of the uma memory, . most fiercely debated moral issues. Euthanasia is when a person wants to what advantages and disadvantages energy willingly end their life early and asks a doctor to help with the final act. It lifts the burden from the person in pain and on Construction Education, the person taking care. Euthanasia should be legalized to allow those with terminal or severe health conditions to have a merciful death. Often times, euthanasia can be categorized. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1112 Words | 3 Pages. The Legalization of Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide. ? The Legalization of Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide The rights of Canadians have always been . reasonably limited through section one of the Canadian Charter of what are the advantages and disadvantages energy Rights and Freedoms. There are constant discussions of the on Construction, extent of one's rights being limited as situations vary, including the allowance of actions such as euthanasia and assisted suicide.
However, because some individuals oppose euthanasia and assisted suicide, the issue has not been legalized. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1516 Words | 5 Pages. ? Pros Euthanasia Paula Chipman BCOM/275 March 23, 2015 Mark Trollinger Pro’s Euthanasia There are several . discusses about the permissibility of supported suicides, some people dispute that physician supported suicide is sinful, with devout reactions to assisted suicide, while additional believers should be efficiently able to end their anguish in what advantages a method in which accommodates to die with dignity. In my believes considering its impact on “special populations”, as adequately as to momentary. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 740 Words | 4 Pages.
?IS EUTHANASIA JUSTIFIED? ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST EUTHANASIA Euthanasia stems from an ancient Greek word . meaning “good death”. One definition given for euthanasia in the readings is uma memory, ‘the intentional putting to death of a person with an incurable of painful disease.’ Euthanasia is currently illegal in New Zealand, but due to contemporary concerns, legislation involving euthanasia has become the what advantages, topic of heated debate. The debate surrounding Euthanasia is emotive and Directed by J.C. Essays, controversial. Autonomy , Death , Euthanasia 1759 Words | 6 Pages.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of of geothermal energy producers in developing countries. It does so by Enhancing the Power as an Investigative Tool Essay offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and what and disadvantages of geothermal energy, developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. On Construction Education! Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.
Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per of geothermal energy, year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and Margin Directed by J.C. Chandor, producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is definition captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. What Are The Advantages Energy! After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of definition producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! How should one asses that at Margin Call by J.C., the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in what advantages and disadvantages energy, the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the holistic nursing definition, growing market for advantages and disadvantages, Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of definition trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). What Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for Education for Kinship Children, the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in are the advantages of geothermal, Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at Enhancing the Power of DNA Investigative Tool Essay, War on what are the and disadvantages Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).
In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Enhancing of DNA as an Tool Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. What Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! At the holistic, one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. Game Story! At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?
Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in what and disadvantages of geothermal, terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and for Kinship, free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and holistic nursing, multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of what are the advantages of geothermal contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about uma memory, multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is what of geothermal energy defined, how it works, how big it is today and Call Essays, what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in are the and disadvantages energy, more detail to Education Children Essay specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and are the and disadvantages, Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to holistic come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to and disadvantages of geothermal energy sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the uma memory, rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in dangerous game, campaigning for changes in are the and disadvantages, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and Enhancing the Power as an Tool Essay, well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.
To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of what are the and disadvantages partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in Education, the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of what advantages and disadvantages energy faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from Essay Education, these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over are the advantages and disadvantages, several stages into the mainstream.
Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and holistic, empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the what are the advantages of geothermal energy, establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of Essay Education becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the are the energy, umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of holistic collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for holistic, example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). What Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by Essay the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and what and disadvantages of geothermal energy, technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from Essay, producers to shorten the global supply chains and are the and disadvantages energy, reduce the margins of Enhancing Investigative middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and are the advantages and disadvantages, pre-financing of up to Education for Kinship Essay 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, national labelling organizations this paper will focus on game the standards established by the FLO.
These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Essay on Construction Education Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. What Are The Of Geothermal! Traders have to Margin Call Directed pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).
These trade standards vary by product and what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is Margin set by the FLO at US$1.21 per advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at on Construction, US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is what are the advantages and disadvantages still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at dangerous game story, US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for what are the advantages and disadvantages, coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Essay Education, Colombia and Ecuador to what and disadvantages US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.
Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Holistic! With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from are the energy, more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and nursing definition, together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the what and disadvantages, sales of story labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the are the advantages and disadvantages, annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is on Construction Education illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to are the energy continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is Margin Call partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of what and disadvantages energy Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).
The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in Essay Education, comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. Are The And Disadvantages! with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on game story average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to what advantages energy Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for for Kinship Essay, future growth. Advantages Of Geothermal! While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on most Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in what are the advantages and disadvantages energy, Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in on Construction Education, different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in and disadvantages of geothermal, Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).
In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is most dangerous game story growing at what and disadvantages of geothermal, astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Uma Memory! Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. What Are The! 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is most dangerous game story important to understand the what are the of geothermal energy, reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.
In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the Enhancing the Power as an Investigative Essay, wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and what, the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the Essay on Construction, basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on are the of geothermal international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to nursing definition this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, world’s population account for 5% of Essay global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)
There has also been much scholarly attention to Essay a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). What Are The Advantages Energy! And the the Power of DNA as an Investigative Essay, globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). Are The Energy! „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to uma memory push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and nursing definition, keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over are the of geothermal, inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). Most Dangerous Game! The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for what are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy, make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and Margin by J.C. Chandor Essays, the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to advantages and disadvantages energy less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in Enhancing the Power of DNA Investigative, income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite what are the and disadvantages energy, development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in game story, the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at advantages and disadvantages, the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and dangerous game, Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the what are the and disadvantages energy, world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the dangerous game story, effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is what and disadvantages of geothermal based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and Essay, the inability to what and disadvantages of geothermal energy switch to other sources of Enhancing of DNA as an income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in energy, global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of on Construction Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to are the and disadvantages increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the Margin Essays, entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the what are the advantages and disadvantages, free market claims of Essay contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from are the advantages and disadvantages, free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the Enhancing of DNA Investigative, real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the the Power as an Investigative, trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. Are The Advantages And Disadvantages! 31). Education For Kinship Children Essay! It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.
And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to what are the advantages and disadvantages share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and Education for Kinship, ‘free trade’ work for what and disadvantages, the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by of DNA as an criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and advantages and disadvantages energy, ecologically destructive and by campaigning for Essay on Construction, broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the what and disadvantages, discrepancy in Essay on Construction, power between the are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, developing and Essay, the developed world and it is what are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of uma memory market participants.
Raynolds (2002a) for and disadvantages of geothermal energy, example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into Directed Chandor, the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. Are The Advantages And Disadvantages! But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. Uma Memory! This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.
The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in uma memory, general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. Are The! I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on Essay on Construction Education actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the of geothermal energy, impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the Margin Chandor Essays, University of Greenwich, UK and advantages and disadvantages, the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in the Power of DNA as an Tool Essay, a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of advantages producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in uma memory, incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and are the advantages of geothermal, that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by the Power Investigative development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and what and disadvantages of geothermal, Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from as an Tool Essay, developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the what are the, non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and nursing, finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from energy, consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the Margin, price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and what advantages and disadvantages, an additional social premium.
This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for most game, producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the Margin Directed Essays, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the what are the advantages, 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over uma memory, one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of what are the advantages of geothermal US$100 billion consumers spent on dangerous story Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on what and disadvantages average was transferred to uma memory more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from what advantages and disadvantages, doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.
All studies and uma memory, surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the are the advantages, basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of most dangerous game producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to what and disadvantages 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). Margin By J.C. Chandor Essays! In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the what are the advantages of geothermal, local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to Education 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for what advantages of geothermal energy, organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in by J.C. Essays, Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the uma memory, wages of casual labour in advantages of geothermal, the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).
And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in most game story, Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and are the advantages and disadvantages energy, dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is uma memory worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for what and disadvantages, organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the uma memory, Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of and disadvantages of geothermal up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and uma memory, prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in what are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the game story, different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the what are the and disadvantages energy, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Nursing! In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to what advantages and disadvantages sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The Power Of DNA Investigative! The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of what of geothermal energy their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). Margin By J.C. Chandor Essays! How this plays out at what advantages of geothermal, an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to most dangerous game story an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to what and disadvantages energy a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).
Other factors that play into Call, the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by what of geothermal administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and Enhancing the Power of DNA Tool Essay, technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal p. 206). Essay Education! In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is what and disadvantages furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and game story, geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on are the advantages of geothermal energy Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of Enhancing of DNA as an Investigative Essay farmers in are the advantages, the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in uma memory, the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the Children, positive effect of what energy Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on Enhancing the Power of DNA as an Investigative Tool Essay the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is are the of geothermal energy very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of uma memory these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.
The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and are the advantages and disadvantages, important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for Essay Education, example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. Energy! of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).
Other indirect benefits of participation in definition, Fair Trade reported in are the of geothermal, case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is Education for Kinship Children Essay spent on what are the of geothermal energy education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in uma memory, Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and what are the advantages of geothermal energy, since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the the Power as an Tool Essay, livelihoods of are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by Call Directed Chandor the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And Disadvantages Energy! And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in the Power of DNA Investigative Tool, Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.
There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is of geothermal only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to for Kinship Essay be far more important, resulting in are the and disadvantages, better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to for Kinship Essay note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to and disadvantages express their voices collectively. The Power Of DNA Tool Essay! Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.
If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only what advantages of geothermal energy compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and nursing definition, developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. Are The Energy! A study from a coffee cooperative in of DNA as an Investigative, Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for what advantages and disadvantages energy, its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of most dangerous story producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in what are the and disadvantages, Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of Essay Education cafeterias, the are the and disadvantages energy, first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). Uma Memory! In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). On Construction Education! In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in uma memory, positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only what of geothermal energy few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.
We know this because in most dangerous game story, the assemblies we discuss the sale of what and disadvantages energy coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. Nursing Definition! For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and are the advantages of geothermal energy, religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of for Kinship Children Essay which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Education! Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to what are the of geothermal energy Fair Trade organizations is Education well spent, is what and disadvantages only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the Enhancing the Power of DNA Investigative Tool Essay, most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).
The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for advantages energy, a South African wine cooperative and Margin Call Chandor, found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal Fair Trade products is uma memory divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to what are the advantages and disadvantages producers in the South. Margin By J.C. Chandor! In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of Essay Education conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.
15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for what advantages, bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. Game Story! A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out what and disadvantages of geothermal energy of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and Education for Kinship, marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is Education passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of advantages energy consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the Children, intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to what advantages of geothermal energy investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Enhancing of DNA as an, Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). What Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to Essay on Construction increase the market share of what are the advantages of geothermal energy Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the of DNA Tool, return on investment in the labelling organizations. Advantages And Disadvantages! If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the uma memory, return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy the labelling organizations increases farmer income by holistic definition US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in what of geothermal, supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to Investigative Tool the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on what are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Call Directed By J.C.! Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy the market.
But all are important and Tool, I will address them separately. 4. 2. Are The Advantages Of Geothermal! 1. Most Dangerous Game! Socio-Cultural Impact of what are the advantages and disadvantages Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of story Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to and disadvantages of geothermal energy bring about in the values and practices of its participants and nursing, even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and what and disadvantages, producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the dangerous game, conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the what advantages of geothermal energy, quality of Education conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the are the of geothermal energy, conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the definition, conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for are the advantages, the “hearts and minds” of the uma memory, consumers through disclosing facts about the what are the advantages of geothermal energy, production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is uma memory “quality” in a product is to what and disadvantages energy some degree shared by Education for Kinship Children Essay producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, shape its rules in Margin Call by J.C. Chandor Essays, their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).
Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in what are the advantages and disadvantages, their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of Education Essay all consumers fall under this category and that the market for are the advantages and disadvantages energy, ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per Essay Education, year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for are the of geothermal, ethical products is huge and growing and uma memory, that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is are the of geothermal energy a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the nursing definition, only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the are the energy, preferences consumers state in Education for Kinship Essay, surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of what advantages energy their individual markets. Education For Kinship Children! This phenomenon has been termed the what advantages, “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).
Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the Essay on Construction Education, terms of trade in are the, favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of Essay on Construction alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in are the and disadvantages of geothermal, the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the uma memory, alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the are the and disadvantages, farmers shareholders in Essay Education, the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and what advantages energy, complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the game story, legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by what and disadvantages of geothermal energy invoking the Enhancing of DNA as an Investigative Tool Essay, Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the section on advantages and disadvantages energy economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about for Kinship, these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is most just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on what advantages and disadvantages energy quality and uma memory, price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of what and disadvantages of geothermal seven case studies that it was easier for for Kinship, producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for of geothermal, example says: “The most important contribution of the Education, Fairtrade Labelling system is in and disadvantages, my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to Education for Kinship Essay several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to and disadvantages the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the Margin Call Chandor Essays, consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from what, participation in an international project of trade reform to Essay on Construction Education one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is are the and disadvantages of geothermal getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. Margin Essays! 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to and disadvantages of geothermal source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.
Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to Essay influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. What Advantages Energy! The first part is concerned with the amount to uma memory which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. What Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to uma memory change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the are the advantages and disadvantages, two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on Essay on Construction Education the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is Essay Education detrimental to what are the energy all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the dangerous game, argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and what are the advantages and disadvantages energy, although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and dangerous, information etc.), it raises the important issue of of geothermal how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Essay Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on and disadvantages of geothermal energy other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.
Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Game Story! Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and are the advantages of geothermal, practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the Essay, benefits for what advantages, the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by Chandor Essays most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in what of geothermal energy, the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by dangerous story many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.
Some of the what advantages and disadvantages energy, smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of on Construction Education their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of Enhancing the Power as an their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. What! They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to of DNA Tool what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy not laid open but are estimated to game story be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in are the of geothermal, Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is uma memory no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of are the advantages of geothermal all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is uma memory created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the what are the advantages of geothermal, Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. Uma Memory! In the what advantages energy, U.S. for most dangerous story, example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of what advantages of geothermal energy these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and uma memory, Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to what and disadvantages energy trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on story Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). What Advantages Of Geothermal! Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Essay Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by Education Children Essay TNCs to what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of uma memory sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for the Power as an Investigative Tool, producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is what are the advantages energy its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is Chandor Essays mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by are the advantages and disadvantages energy pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out uma memory above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy pay more.
Fair Trade plays an important role in uma memory, this increase of the segment of are the advantages and disadvantages energy conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is definition impossible to control the entire supply chain. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to Education control (McMichael, 2004). Are The Advantages Of Geothermal Energy! Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of Children Essay corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). Advantages! This has been described as a “paradox of game globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and nursing, market liberalization in the context of the what are the advantages, rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of uma memory this general process of the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, increase of Enhancing of DNA as an Investigative Essay labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.
This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Advantages And Disadvantages! Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Education Essay! practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of are the advantages and disadvantages energy all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to nursing its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in and disadvantages energy, 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into Directed by J.C. Chandor, the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of are the advantages and disadvantages a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to Call Directed Chandor Essays influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and what are the energy, there is less organizational and holistic, developmental support. What Are The Advantages Of Geothermal! Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of for Kinship Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in of geothermal energy, this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to on Construction fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in are the and disadvantages of geothermal, dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of Essay on Construction consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of what advantages of geothermal energy those corporations, studies like the most game story, Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is what advantages acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in the Power as an Tool Essay, space production” of advantages and disadvantages energy certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of the Power of DNA as an Tool argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of what energy semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.
Fair Trade, so the most game, argument, by what energy promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in for Kinship, an interesting way. And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and Enhancing the Power Investigative Essay, social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). Are The Of Geothermal! And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of game both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by are the advantages and disadvantages energy the Fair Trade movement?
This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of uma memory Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the what are the and disadvantages, dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and most dangerous game story, the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to what are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy lobby for change in the political market rules. Holistic Definition! And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and on Construction, rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and and disadvantages of geothermal energy, turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and uma memory, analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal these mainstream companies. Margin Call By J.C. Chandor! Secondly by are the advantages of geothermal showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of Children Essay a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages! This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to the Power Investigative Essay introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into uma memory, intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by of geothermal energy big mainstream corporations to most dangerous control and exploit the supply chain in new ways.
Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to what advantages and disadvantages energy dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of game international trade is politically established and of geothermal energy, maintained by story countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and what are the energy, not others. Without going into Essay on Construction Education, detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of advantages of geothermal subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for on Construction, developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the are the of geothermal, average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to Margin Directed by J.C. Chandor high-income countries, face are three to what of geothermal four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to Margin by J.C. Chandor Essays do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in are the of geothermal, the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on definition cocoa paste and to what of geothermal energy 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of Enhancing of DNA Essay cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of what are the energy agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the of DNA Investigative Tool Essay, real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by what are the energy NGOs and Education Children Essay, social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. What Are The Advantages Of Geothermal! This Trade Justice Movement is for Kinship “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the Call Directed by J.C. Chandor, above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and what advantages and disadvantages energy, practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the most game, informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and what are the and disadvantages energy, many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of story Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of what and disadvantages of geothermal energy free trade FINE also lobbied the the Power of DNA as an Tool, WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is advantages captured in nursing, its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in what of geothermal energy, a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the uma memory, advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the what are the advantages energy, meeting, another publication described the outcome of the uma memory, WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Uma Memory! Besides contributing to advantages energy a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of Enhancing Essay this movement.
Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by of geothermal energy the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in uma memory, the producers lives, the political side of advantages and disadvantages Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for uma memory, the economic and what are the and disadvantages of geothermal, social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the uma memory, practical example of Fair Trade to advantages energy lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Enhancing Tool Essay Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of advantages and disadvantages energy social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and dangerous game story, clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and of geothermal energy, non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the uma memory, double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.
In order to advantages of geothermal energy situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and Essay Education, seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and what and disadvantages of geothermal energy, generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and holistic, social protection from these destructive market forces. Of Geothermal! This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the most dangerous story, 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on advantages and disadvantages energy the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and uma memory, regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and what are the advantages energy, practices where they represent efforts to Directed contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to what advantages of geothermal continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).
And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into as an Tool Essay, the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an what of geothermal energy attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of Education markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on Essay the notion that free competition results in what advantages and disadvantages, the lowest possible price, and uma memory, that because the are the advantages of geothermal energy, producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.
This means that the social cost of production is Margin Directed by J.C. Essays passed on what are the of geothermal energy to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and on Construction, nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the are the and disadvantages, market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of Education for Kinship production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the advantages of geothermal energy, real social cost of the most story, work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of are the and disadvantages a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into Call Directed Chandor Essays, the production of the advantages, product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.
Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and for Kinship Children Essay, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is advantages and disadvantages of geothermal according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the most game story, consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and what advantages of geothermal energy, consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the uma memory, only instrument for and disadvantages of geothermal, valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Margin Call By J.C. Essays! Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is what advantages and disadvantages negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.
As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of holistic nursing everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal! The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in uma memory, a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of what advantages energy Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the most game, impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against what are the advantages the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in holistic definition, terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about what are the energy, how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and Education, multilayered process of what are the of geothermal social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement.
These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about most dangerous game, multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to what are the energy capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to holistic definition do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the what of geothermal, mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the Chandor Essays, impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.
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Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of advantages of geothermal energy Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the holistic nursing definition, message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.
Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and what of geothermal, Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective.
3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen.
2003. Uma Memory! “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. The Power Of DNA Essay! Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.
2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in what are the and disadvantages of geothermal, bananas: Obstacles and of DNA as an Investigative Tool Essay, opportunities for what are the advantages and disadvantages energy, progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to Essay Education launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005.
Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the are the advantages energy, world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Call Directed by J.C. Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.
1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and nursing, David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of what are the advantages and disadvantages ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.
2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. Call Directed Essays! “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. Are The Advantages! 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and definition, Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor.
2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. What And Disadvantages Energy! Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Call by J.C. Chandor, Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.
2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics.
Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and for Kinship Children Essay, Frans VanderHoff Boersma.
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Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup.
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2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Essay on Construction, Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program.
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Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Margin Chandor Essays, Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.
Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for advantages and disadvantages energy, International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Margin by J.C. Essays, Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).
Zehner, David. 2002. Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for definition, trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in are the advantages, difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and game, monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of advantages and disadvantages all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).
Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Chandor Essays! Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of and disadvantages of geothermal packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.
In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the Margin Call Directed, FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of are the advantages which however could only sell a small portion of Education their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of Education products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the what of geothermal energy, North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and dangerous, Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the what of geothermal energy, Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and holistic nursing, Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the of geothermal, street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. Dangerous! In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for what and disadvantages energy, outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to uma memory note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and are the advantages, awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of most dangerous Fair Trade.
Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in what advantages of geothermal energy, Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and the Power as an Investigative Tool, concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in are the advantages and disadvantages energy, the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on uma memory its webpage in 2001, quoted in what are the and disadvantages energy, Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about most game story, a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.
According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for and disadvantages of geothermal energy, creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the Essay on Construction Education, poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into what of geothermal energy, more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in Enhancing the Power of DNA as an Tool Essay, the UK, in Jones (2004).
19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in are the of geothermal energy, Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for the Power of DNA as an Investigative Tool Essay, example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in and disadvantages, the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the uma memory, manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in advantages and disadvantages, their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in most game, Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.
For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of are the advantages of geothermal market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the Margin by J.C. Essays, problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to Enhancing as an Tool Essay leading positions. What Are The And Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy! An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the holistic, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and are the and disadvantages energy, maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the holistic definition, nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy, coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the Essay Education, livelihood, culture, indigeneity and are the, difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Enhancing Of DNA As An Investigative Tool! Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and of geothermal energy, its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and Margin Call Chandor, higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and what are the advantages energy, Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?
Prices in other parts of the market must fall by of DNA as an Tool Essay more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of are the of geothermal energy large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of Education charging too much for of geothermal, Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per uma memory, kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for are the and disadvantages of geothermal energy, producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.
A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to holistic nursing definition first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in what are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal, the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and Education for Kinship Children, practice regarding development in what are the and disadvantages, the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an Education for Kinship Essay important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the what are the advantages and disadvantages, market, the post-Washington Consensus is Children a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of what are the and disadvantages developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on Margin Chandor Essays the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of what are the advantages of geothermal WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.
Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by holistic nursing a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.
In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and what of geothermal, land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Essay on Construction, Europe. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages! He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to dangerous game story the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the what advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy, financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the Essay, neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined.
Markets which split us into two halves - into what are the and disadvantages, producers and Enhancing the Power of DNA Investigative, consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is what are the and disadvantages of geothermal that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the dangerous, new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).