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Digression - Examples and Definition of

Biological Role Neon Essay examples. Neon is a light and very inert gas. Digression Example. Neon remains colorless except when in a vacuum discharge tube, where it glows a reddish orange. Neon isnt known to be toxic and forms no known stable compounds. On Peer. Neon, at 2.6 OC, has the smallest liquid range of any element known to man. William Ramsey and Morris Travers discovered neon in digression, 1898. This was not the first element Ramsey had discovered, as he had previously founded argon in 1894. Ramsey then founded helium in 1895. Ramsey and Travers knew there must be an element between argon and helium in the periodic table. After freezing a sample of argon using liquid air and obtained the first gas that came off. Using a vacuum tube to obtain the pride and prejudice count gass spectrum.

This was the first time anyone had seen a glow of neon light. Ramsey named the element neon which his Greek for new. The abundance of digression neon in earths crust is speech 5 parts per digression example, billion by Essay weight, 5 parts per billion by moles. In the digression example solar system the abundance is 1,000 ppm by weight, 70 ppm by moles. First Amendment. The cost of digression pure neon is approximately $33 per 100g. Neon can be found in the atmosphere and is obtained commercially by fractionally distilling liquid air. Neon has 14 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 16 to 29. Natural neon is a mixture of 3 stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.5%), 21Ne (0.7%), 22Ne (9.2%). Neon emits an orange, red light when a few thousand volts are applied to it. Therefore, neon is commonly used in brightly lit.

Related Documents: Biological Role Neon Essay examples. ? Survey of Biological Sciences Chapter 3 and 4 1. The cell theory is all organisms composed of one or more cells, the basic living unit of structure and function in organisms. 2. On The Amendment. The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer in which protein molecules are either partially or wholly embedded. The phospholipid bilayer has a fluid consistency, comparable to that of light oil. The proteins are scattered throughtout the membrane; therefore they form a mosaic pattern. 3. Integral proteins. Words 926 - Pages 4. ? Biological Problems Hypoglycemia is example a condition where blood sugar levels drop dangerously low. It is usually seen in diabetic patients who take insulin, but other diseases can also cause it. Article- Hypoglycemia is among the most worrisome complications resulting from use of hypoglycemic agents in Essay on the First Amendment, the management of diabetes, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in diabetics. Normally, the patient is digression example protected from hypoglycemia through. Fictional Newspaper Article Tournaments. Words 3873 - Pages 16. Introduction to digression, Biological Anthropology!

Essay. specializations within archaeology. Of A Good. For example, archaeobotany concerns the study of digression plant remains from archaeological sites; geoarchaeology concerns the role of geological processes in qualities, the formation of cultural strata. Biological Anthropology the example subject of Fictional Tournaments this course, also called physical anthropology, this subfield concerns the biological diversity of the human species. Biological anthropologists study a number of digression aspects of human biology, including; paleoanthropology (the study of. Words 3458 - Pages 14. security and Newspaper Article about Tournaments see you as a parent who has had an important role within their life By choosing to adopt a child, it shows massive commitment and responsibility. Adopting can create strong bonds of love between either you and your partner, or the couple and the child; a whole new relationship is formed You can make a significant change in digression, a childs life for the better, the child now may not go through life feeling unwanted or neglected Disadvantages: The biological parents may come in. Words 1982 - Pages 8. disorder. Given that Psychologists are now in agreement that schizophrenia is a result of interplay between biological predisposition and the environment that the sufferer is exposed to.

It is clear that genetics plays a vital role in the development of schizophrenia and there is strong evidential links that people who have relatives diagnosed with schizophrenia have an Essay increased risk of developing the disorder. Research presented by Gottesman (1991) illustrated the risks in developing the disorder. Words 1928 - Pages 8. fall in love D (stop) If I ever did that F#m D A I think I#x27;D have A heart atta-A-A-A-A-ack E F#m D A I think I#x27;D have A heart atta-A-A-A-A-ack E F#m D A I think I#x27;D have A heart atta-A-A-A-A-ack E F#m D A I think I#x27;D have A heart atta-[A-A-A-A-ack E F#m I think I#x27;d have a heart attack Neon Lights F#m. Digression. Words 1727 - Pages 7. Biological Machines from Yeast Essay. Yes to Yeast Synopsis: Imperial College London researchers have taken an qualities of a good counselor ancient component and transformed it into so much more than thought possible. Digression Example. A new type of biological wire using proteins that interact with DNA is being created. These wires are beneficial because they can be re-engineered a lot of times to create potentially billions of connections between DNA components (Imperial College London).

Future machines could include cells engineered to carry out tasks similar to. Words 664 - Pages 3. Biological importance of water Essay. ?Biological importance of Reflection on the Amendment water Water is essential to every living organisms. Water is digression a major component of cells, it takes up around 70% to when the michelangelo virus take effect every, 95% of mass of the cell. Water possesses unique properties, for instance, high specific heat capacity, solvent properties, high incidence of hydrogen bonding and low viscosity. It is also present in most body fluids. These characteristics cause water to become biologically important to all living organisms. The.

Words 1019 - Pages 5. Example. ?PLAN 8: Brain size matters. Evaluate the evidence regarding this statement./ How can studying the environmental constraints of an animal help us understand the organization of its brain? INTRO: It is clear that within different animals there are variations of brain size- there have been many perspectives on whether brain size matters and this will be further explored within this essay. PARA 1: FORAGING AND DIET The evolutionary perspective has a key role in on peer, explaining the debate in whether. Words 816 - Pages 4. Digression. ?Chapter 315 Biological Psychology In this chapter we will examine: What are the components of the nervous system? How does the Brain create mental processes and of a counselor behavior? What we understand least is why brain activity produces experience at digression, all. Kalat Explanations for behavior The best theories in psychology explain behavior in terms of evolution, development or psychology. Evolutionary explanations relate behavior to the history of the species. Essay On Reflection Amendment. Developmental explanations describe. Words 781 - Pages 4. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the digression respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website.

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Digression - Examples and Definition of

Digression example

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Digression - Examples and Definition of

Grad Student Survival Guide in Math Sciences. This Graduate Student Survival Guide could have been titled, Something the (many) Authors Wish They Had When They First Started Grad School at Rensselaer. Though descriptive, that title was just too long. Nonetheless, in digression example an uncommon act of benevolence, a group of on peer interested graduate students formed the idea, mustered the energy, and found the time to bring together in writing sound advice based on digression many years' experience. Alluded to in the descriptive title is the purpose of this Guide. Speech. Succinctly put, it is to pass along advice to digression example incoming graduate students so that they might optimize their time in does the michelangelo take effect pursuit of digression a graduate degree from the qualities good counselor Department of digression Mathematical Sciences at Rensselaer.

The reader is alerted to the fact that this Guide is based on a collection of individual experiences. Therefore, it is left to the reader to Essay Reflection decide whether or not the advice is worth implementing. (We wouldn't be assuming this time-consuming task if we didn't consider the digression example advice worthwhile, but the qualities good caveat emptor needs to digression be stated.) So, let us begin by extending our congratulations to Essay on on the First you for digression, being accepted into the graduate program. We sincerely hope that you will find your experience at Rensselaer to be a rewarding one. We also sincerely hope that you will find this Guide useful in the pursuit of your degree. All Math grads must be aware of the course requirements for the degree they seek. This information can be found at You should read this and be very familiar with it. It is on The Federal Intelligence, your responsibility to make sure you meet these requirements. Example. Failure to do so will delay your graduation!

You should discuss these requirements with your academic advisor to be sure that you understand them fully. Here are some additional notes for when does the michelangelo take effect year, you on a few of the requirements: 2.1 Doctoral Students. 1. If you plan on getting an M.S. along the way to your Ph.D., you must fulfill all of the M.S. requirements, including the digression example Masters' Practicum. (See below for more information on the practicum.) 2. If you plan on transferring in credits or using work you have done elsewhere (see part D of your requirements) to cover any of the other requirements, you must contact the and prejudice word Graduate Committee for approval in writing, and you should discuss it with your academic advisor. 3. Example. The 30 credit maximum for research is a fixed upperbound, but if you are finding the official course offerings to be limiting, consider taking readings courses. 4. The institute requirement regarding the qualities of a good counselor number of 400-level credits you can use toward your degree can be confusing. Perhaps the easiest way to example determine the good number of 400-level credits is from this simple rule: min (21 credits, 1/3 of total course credits).

Because there might be some confusion, we provide a few examples which should help to clarify the rules. If you take 90 credits and the maximum of 30 research credits (note: research credits are different from reading courses - reading courses are counted as course credits) then you would need 60 course credits. You could have at most 20 of those course credits at digression example, 400-level. Speech On Peer Pressure. If you take 90 credits of which 15 are research credits, you would need 75 course credits, but only 21 of example them can be at the 400-level. 5. Essay On The Amendment. If the department is paying for your credits, it will not pay for more than the 90 credits required. So, you should attempt to meet all the requirements by the time you reach 90 credits. Then you should register for degree completion to keep your active status. See the section Money saving Hints for information about how to stay full-time after reaching your 90 credits. 6. A Master's Practicum is considered a course that can be applied toward fulfilling Ph.D. course requirements. 2.2 Masters Students. 1. The first thing you should note about digression example, your requirements is does virus effect year, that we have two M.S programs here at example, Rensselaer.

Make sure your courses match the program you wish to be in! 2. The second thing to note is the Master's Practicum. You cannot graduate without it as this requirement is dictated by New York State. There are many ways to fulfill this requirement. Perhaps the simplest way would be by attending the Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Reflection First Industry (MPI). This event is held every year in May or June on the Rensselaer campus. (See Preparing for example, a Job in Industry for more information on speech this workshop). Other ways to fulfill this requirement can be found in the requirements document. See . Your academic advisor should have an idea of the types of practica that satisfy institutional/state requirements. But, as this is a new requirement, students should expect that the digression example master's practicum is going to evolve over does the michelangelo virus effect every, time, so students and faculty will have to adapt to the changes as they occur. So, the digression best bet is to discuss your Practicum with your academic advisor, and send a memo to speech the Graduate Committee for its approval in writing just to be safe. Digression Example. Also, make sure it is speech, listed on your plan of study even if you are not receiving Rensselaer credits.

All graduate students in the Ph.D. Digression Example. program have a set of exams they are required to qualities of a good counselor pass. Understanding these exams and the by which they must be completed is the digression example responsibility of the student. Article. Masters' students who switch into the Ph.D. program will also have to complete these exams, but the timing is digression example, a bit different. The full explanation of both cases can be found at . These exams should be thought of as stepping stones in when does virus your doctoral education. Along with your class work, these exams should help the department assess your abilities to be successful in writing a thesis and obtaining a Ph.D. But most importantly, they give the student a way to digression example check his/her progress. As you move from year to year and pass these different exams, you will have a concrete set of successes you can look back on effect year which, together with your class work and research, build a solid doctoral education. 3.1 Preparation for the Exams. Note: You should be familiar with the Doctoral exam document before you read this section. 3.1.1 Preliminary Exam.

The purpose of the examination is to assess the qualifications of students in critical areas of digression undergraduate mathematics. The exam consists of 12 questions, about one-third from linear algebra and about two-thirds from basic calculus. Students will have to the michelangelo effect year choose 10 questions to digression example be graded. Effect Every. The duration of the test will be four hours. The level of difficulty of questions is very close to example the level of the standard GRE mathematics test. The linear algebra and calculus questions from speech GRE preparation books can serve as good practice questions for the test. Digression Example. The format of the test is different from the GRE test: there are no multiple choice questions. 1. Get copies of sample prelims so you know what to expect. These can be obtained from Dawnmarie Robens who is located in pride word count AE301. 2. Mathematics GRE study guides can be purchased at places such as . 3. Check the Prelim home page for when the exam is scheduled.

If you plan on taking it, then sign-up with Dawnmarie. Example. You have the option to Federal Intelligence not take it even if you sign up. However, you should let Dawnmarie know if you change your mind. 4. Practice all the good test taking techniques you have learned over the years. Get a good night's sleep, eat well before the exam, review the material for several weeks prior to the exam, find a study partner, obtain the notes from someone who successfully passed the exam, etc. 5.You can ask Dawnmarie which faculty comprise the exam writing committee. Feel free to contact them for digression, helpful studying suggestions. (See the phone/office list in the appendix.) 3.1.2 Qualifying Exam. As you take graduate classes, you should keep in mind that you will have to Essay First Amendment pass a Qualifying Exam covering three classes of your choosing. Your selection might be based upon example, your aptitude for the subject matter, your relationship with the pride and prejudice word count professors of the classes, and the course's relationship with your tentative research topic.

By the end of digression your fourth semester, you should have a good idea which three classes you have taken (or soon will take) that you would like included in your qualifying exam. Speech. Every semester you should discuss the tentative course list with your academic advisor. After choosing your three classes, you should set up a date and time that works for the examining committee and which meets the exam time frame requirement (see section 2.G of the exam requirements document). Please note: you will want to confirm that the digression example professors you took the courses from will be on your examining committee. See part 2.C of the exam requirements for and prejudice, rules pertaining to the situation when one of digression example your chosen faculty members is unable to attend the examination. In any case, once you know the subjects and the examiners, you will want to begin stage two of when does the michelangelo effect every your preparation for this exam. (Stage one being taking the course in the first place.) The obvious stage two prep will be reviewing your class notes, as well as finding more references on the subjects, acquiring books you didn't use in class, etc., to ensure that you have a very good understanding of the material.

Then talk to the people who will be on your examination committee, ask them for the things they think are the most important . Set up more than one meeting with each person if possible so you get more than one impression. Digression Example. Ask their opinions not only on the subject they taught you, but also on the other subjects as well. Don't forget, they will all be in the room with you and it is in qualities of a good your best interest to know as much as possible about what will be asked before you walk in. Similarly, it is in your best interest for digression, these people to be confident of your knowledge before you walk in the room as well. Please Note: It is NOT necessary to Essay on The Federal Service have found a thesis advisor before this exam, but you should be well acquainted with your academic advisor by this time.

3.1.3 Candidacy Exam. After you have found a thesis advisor and have begun probing a research topic, together you will form a thesis committee (the Institute requires at least four full-time tenure-track Rensselaer faculty members, and at least one scientist or professor from digression example outside the Math Sciences Department). Once things have solidified to a point, you and your advisor will decide when it is time for your candidacy exam. This must occur before you complete 75 credit hours (Institute requirement). On The First Amendment. The candidacy is a presentation of the preliminary research work you have done and where you intend on going with it. Example. It is a time to gather feedback from your entire committee (it may be the only time they all gather in the same room until your thesis defense!).

It should be viewed more as a presentation and request for feedback, but you can expect penetrating questions from your committee. If you feel that one of the Essay Intelligence above exams was not as fair as you would have hoped, then you should put your observations in writing as soon as possible. Discuss these observations with your advisor. If you remain unsatisfied after that discussion, you have the right to bring these concerns before the Graduate Committee. Digression Example. A formal appeal in writing should be submitted to the Graduate Committee as soon as possible. This process is in place to when does the michelangelo virus effect year provide checks and balances to digression the system. You should always discuss things with your advisor first (if possible), but you should not be afraid to use the speech on peer system. Under certain rare circumstances, requirements may be delayed, waived, or changed. All appeals should be made in writing to the Graduate Committee. Prior discussion with your academic advisor is digression, assumed. Appeals will be considered by the entire committee and decisions will be returned to the student in writing.

Keep in take effect every year mind these requirements were set up not to hinder you from gaining a good education, but to digression ensure that you obtain a quality degree in on peer pressure a timely fashion. Your academic advisor is your first link to the Rensselaer Math Sciences Department. Advisors are usually assigned to incoming students based on the interests you expressed in your application. Digression. Your advisor has a wealth of knowledge that you need to tap into EARLY! Your education at Rensselaer should be tailored to suit your needs and your goals for and prejudice word count, your future. To do this your advisor must be aware of example these needs and goals. You will need to meet with your advisor before every semester to Fictional Article about register for courses. Do not simply pop in and get the signature; instead, make an appointment and hold a discussion so you are both clear on your goals and can be sure that you are reaching them in a timely fashion. Below is a list of suggested topics/questions you will want to consider discussing with your academic advisor. Some are questions the example answers to which you should share with your advisor. Some are questions you may want to ask your advisor.

If you are a new student, you will want to be sure to Essay Reflection Amendment get through this list and any other ideas of your own. (Current students, you may find this list to be helpful as well, as it may point out some topic you may have overlooked.) Also, many of these same topics should be discussed with your thesis advisor (when you get one). It is crucial that everyone important to your success here at Rensselaer be aware of your needs and goals so that you can obtain the best education possible! Your education goals: Are you headed for a Masters degree? Is there any potential that you will want to pursue a Ph.D. at some point? Or vice versa? How easily can you obtain a Masters degree along the way? (This is a smart thing to do.) Your career goals: Are you hoping to example get a job in Academia (teaching)? At what type of institution (High school, small college, university)? What percentage of the time do you want to spend doing research? What percentage of the time do you want to does take every spend teaching?

Are you looking for a job in industry? Do you have any idea what you would like to do in industry? Are you looking to digression work in on the a research lab? Are you aware of the average salary ranges for your choice of career? What other skills outside of mathematics will help you in such a job? (Programming, learning all about digression example, grant writing, education courses, technical writing. ) No exact career goals at the moment?

What should you do to prepare for qualities good counselor, all of the above? Is that possible? What are the differences in preparation? Timing: Are you planning on being at Rensselaer over the summers? What time line do you see for yourself? (When do you want to graduate?) Is your plan reasonable? Are there any outside concerns (family, job) that should be taken into digression example, consideration when planning your time line? Are you a TA? Are you on a one year fellowship that may or may not be renewed the next year? Are you self funded? These issues should be discussed before filling out a plan of Tournaments study.

See the section Paper Trail for more details on example that document. Continued Department Support: You should also be sure to consider in your time line planning that the Department has guidelines for continuation of financial aid for Essay Reflection First, doctoral students: Graduate students who receive full Teaching Assistantships from the example Department should plan to Article about Tournaments complete their doctoral programs within four or five years. Student can expect that their TA support will continue through this period, provided that they continue to digression example make satisfactory progress toward their degree and Fictional Medevial Tournaments, they continue to digression perform well in their teaching assignments. Satisfactory progress means completing courses, required examinations (preliminary, qualifying, and candidacy), selecting a research area, and making progress toward completing a thesis. If a student requires TA support beyond the fifth year, each situation will be considered individually. Your background: What mathematics have you taken? What is critical knowledge for the career goals you seek?

What are the base classes that would round out your education? Where are you lacking? Are there reasons you are lacking in qualities of a certain areas? (Maybe you just didn't like that subject, or never saw a need for example, that subject, or past schools didn't offer that subject). Are you prepared to jump right into all graduate classes? What prep should you be doing on your own to better succeed in the classes for which you are registering? Are there any undergraduate classes you should take that would help round out your education or prepare you for grad classes or exams to come? What books should you be familiar with? Have you done any independent work (on a job or on your own time) which is not reflected in your transcript? (Are you a proficient programmer with no programming classes, have you written any papers? Done any previous research?) Are there outside area interests that could be worked into your education?

What classes should you take? You should read the course catalog and the semester's class offerings, and come up with a list of classes that interest you. With your advisor you should determine if these classes also help you in reaching your education and career goals, help you in Essay Intelligence Service preparing for your exams (for Ph.D. Example. students), help you meet the department requirements, etc. On Reflection. TAs also need to take into account the amount of time they need to dedicate to example that job. Also, (for returning students) are you in compliance with your plan of study? If not, re-file it. Beware of that pesky 400-level course maximum! Determine scheduling to meet the degree requirements (Ph.D. students): Doctoral students must adhere to the time line set out by the exam requirements. You should discuss these with your advisor and determine how and on Reflection First, when you fulfill them.

See Section on doctoral exam requirements for more information) Other than classes, what should be done to prepare you for your eventual job search? Who in the department has worked at other universities? Who has worked in industrial jobs? Where have recent graduate students gotten jobs? (See the department Home pages!) How did they do it? How can you meet these people and start setting up a network of contacts so that your job search runs as smoothly as possible? How about a summer internship? The Career Development Center here on Campus has some information on digression example employers but is on, not a good enough resource for the whole job search process. If your advisor is not familiar with your future career choice, is there anyone in example the department who is? (Not only qualities of a counselor, professors, but current grad students and graduates, too.) If your advisor doesn't know, who might? Find out, talk to them and be prepared early.

Finding the right thesis advisor is critical to your survival and completion of your graduate degree. When you first arrive at Rensselaer, some of example you may know exactly the area in on First which you would like to do research. However, many new graduate students do not. Therefore, it is essential for all graduate students to get to know the faculty. Meet the Faculty Colloquium: Once a year, in digression example the fall, there is a colloquium specifically designed for the graduate students to learn what the faculty members do in research. Most professors give brief talks on of a their current research projects as well as what their students have worked on or are working on.

As a graduate student without a research advisor, you will definitely want to attend this colloquium. It is digression, also a good opportunity for all graduate students to learn what fellow students are working on. You may be surprised, and pride and prejudice word, your interest will be piqued. Take courses from professors in your research area: If you have an idea of which area you would like to do research, take classes from professors who are also interested in that area (if they are teaching any) or ask them about a reading course. Make an appointment: It is important that as a new graduate student you meet the faculty. And, unless you have a professor in a class or are their TA, you may not have the occasion to get to know your professors. Set up an appointment to meet them to just talk. Attend Office Hours: One of the best and most convenient methods of getting to know the professors is by digression example, attending their office hours.

This is word count, a time that the professor has reserved to spend time with the example students, i.e. you. So take advantage of their availability and attention. Start attending office hours early in speech on peer pressure the semester to avoid an exam rush. Familiarity with Future Plans, Who They Know: Choosing the example right advisor extends beyond selecting someone with a topic of interest to you. It is best if you can choose someone that supports you in your future plans. That is, whatever your future goals are, does this person have the right contacts to help you get started in this particular direction? Has this person had other students go in the direction you wish to go? You should discuss your plans with your prospective advisor. Working Styles: Another important aspect to selecting the right advisor is finding someone whose personality and Essay, working style complement yours.

This can be difficult to determine, and it is usually after you have begun working with someone that you can determine the fit. You may be able to get an digression example impression of their working style through the courses you have taken with them. How a professor answers your questions can give you some indication of how their thought process works and of what their work ethic is. Additionally, you may get some indication of and prejudice count his/her working style through discussions with current graduate students. Talk to current and past students: Whether or not it is deserved, most advisors get either a good or bad reputation. It can prove useful for you to talk to current and digression, former students of your prospective advisor to learn what really can be expected.

Be advised that the word count reputations might be out-dated or completely wrong. So check things out. Get involved. Great! Now you have your thesis advisor. Keep communications open. Example. This will help to make the when the michelangelo effect experience a positive one.

You will need to set goals, communicate expectations, and establish a timetable for digression example, completion. This will alleviate any hard feelings or misunderstandings later on. Of A. Be sure to be clear about your expectations and goals. It is important that you and digression example, your advisor are in agreement about the progression of Fictional Newspaper Tournaments your education and its completion. The following are questions and ideas that you should consider discussing with your thesis advisor.

Coursework: What additional coursework would your advisor recommend you take to better prepare you for research? What courses interest you? How should you best complete the course requirements? (see Section 2 Course Requirements) Should you finish all of example your coursework as soon as possible, or is it better to take one or two courses each semester? Papers: Does your advisor expect you to publish your research? Is there a certain quantity of on peer pressure publications that is required by digression, your advisor?

Do you want to when does the michelangelo virus year publish while you are here at Rensselaer? (see Preparing for a Job in Academia and Preparing for a Job in Industry) Presentations: Will your advisor send (or bring) you to a conference to present your research? Does your advisor have connections at other local colleges where you could give presentations on your research? Meetings: How often does your advisor plan to meet with you? Will she/he set up a fixed time each week? Will there be a set of objectives between each meeting to example be accomplished?

Candidacy and Thesis Timing: When does your advisor expect you will be ready to take your candidacy exam and defend your thesis? By what date would you like to have defended your thesis? Thesis Committee: After you've worked a while you can discuss with your advisor who to put on your thesis committee. This is something you probably will have an idea of as you take courses and look for potential thesis advisors. It is beneficial for you and your advisor to agree to qualities of a the members of your thesis committee.

See Section 5, Things to Discuss with your Academic Advisor. Many of the same questions will pertain to your academic advisor and your thesis advisor. Not all mathematics fits with all industrial jobs. People in industry often think there is no practical value to higher mathematics. And they often do not appreciate the complexities that can blossom from a simple problem. So, being a proficient mathematician will not guarantee you a job in industry. Digression. So what can you do while at Rensselaer to make your life easier when you are ready to leave? Technical writing: No matter what you do in industry, you are going to have to document it somehow, whether it be in technical papers, comments in your code or user documentation.

Thus, solid technical writing skills are a must. Rensselaer offers a few technical writing classes for those who want to hone these skills (and if you take a 600-level class, it even fulfills the when does the michelangelo virus take year outside area class requirement!). Trade journals and Conferences: Do you have any idea what a mathematician does in example industry? Do you have any idea what the Fictional Article about Tournaments practical problems are out digression, there facing these mathematicians? Knowledge of this will help you pick your classes, focus on a particular job field, maybe even find a research project. There is a variety of trade journals out there which will expose you not only to the problems in on Reflection First mathematics, but will help you to digression example understand your field of choice as a whole. And Prejudice Count. Each field has its own vocabulary that you should be familiar with before trying to get a job there. If you don't know where to example start, try the mathematics journals and see what they talk about. Ask your advisor what journals are decent and ask your fellow grad students what they read. Don't be afraid of non-math trade journals either.

Some of them are quite easy to read since they are non-academic. What conferences are good and why? How about qualities good, a non-mathematics conference, (such as the flashy SIGGRAPH, or Unix Expo (which is conveniently located in NYC usually each Fall))? Or for digression, real convenience and great exposure to Fictional Newspaper Article about industrial problems, how about the Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry (MPI) here at Rensselaer each May/June? Or check the Internet for a wide variety of conference listings, and digression example, watch the department bulletin boards too. (Another great way to spend your summer!) Computer skills: The computer age is upon us in Essay on full force, and it is now pretty rare when mathematics is done solely by digression example, pen and paper. Can you program?

Can you get yourself around a PC and a Workstation? Can you edit a file on a PC and on qualities good a UNIX workstation? What programming languages are hot in the field you are interested in? What applications (i.e. software) are necessary tools of the trade? What skills are employers listing in your field? Do you have them? (Another great way to spend a summer!!) Publishing Papers: Although this is not as critical as it is for Academia, having a few published papers to list on your resume will give the prospective employer something concrete to read when trying to assess your mathematical skills. Presentation at a Conference: It is important for you to digression example become comfortable presenting your work to others, fielding questions and when the michelangelo every, handling spontaneous requests. Example. In industry you will very likely be called upon to Newspaper Article about Medevial discuss the work you are doing, either to management, co-workers, or in a briefing to example customers. Whether it be a talk to your fellow grad students, or a presentation at a conference, the pressure more you present your work, the example more comfortable you will be with that process. You will get the obvious benefits of additional feedback on your work, perhaps insights you had not yet seen as well as appreciation for pressure, your efforts.

But, you also have the option of requesting feedback from you advisor or someone you trust in the audience, not only on the content of your talk, but on your presentation style. TA-ing: Yes, even this will help your resume for industry. You can use this as a way to show an employer you have people skills, the ability to break a difficult problem down to the point where it can be understood, that you know how to multi-task (you were TA-ing and taking classes. ) Collaborative Research and digression, other group work: It is very important that you show you can work alone as well as in word a group when you are searching for a job in industry. Most work in industry is digression, a team effort with each person playing an independent part in the final product. Demonstrating that you can work in such an virus take effect every year environment, that you picked up slack when necessary, that you could lead as well as follow, etc., are all valuable skills. Look into example, working with a post-doc or someone other than your advisor on a short term project. Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry (MPI): The MPI workshop is a week-long work event held annually in May or June in which representatives from industry bring problems of interest to their companies.

The problems are presented on the first day. For the and prejudice count rest of the week, the academic and industrial participants discuss the problems in small, informal working groups. Summary reports on the week's progress is made on digression example the last day. The workshop is a rich environment for learning and students gain exposure to on peer pressure industrial relevant `real world problems, mathematical modeling, methods of solution, etc. Every grad student should consider attending at least one workshop (not just to hear the problems on the first day but to spend time during the week when the problems get sorted out). It is a good learning experience even if the digression example student doesn't feel that his/her background is Newspaper Article Tournaments, strong enough to participate much.

You will be seeing/ working on actual problems from digression industry, see what they face, and how such problems are solved. Then someday, once you are out there in industry you will bring a problem of your own to speech on peer pressure this workshop! C olloquia: For information on example the Math department Colloquia refer to on The Section on Preparing for a Job in Academia. Much of that also applies to digression industrial jobs. But for someone wishing to work in speech on peer industry you should also consider attending colloquia in other departments. Here you can learn their language and be exposed to the problems they face and you can start to picture your role working along side these people in industry. It will also help to digression example broaden your background, as well as provide you with another mechanism to speech make contacts outside the Math department. The Computer Science department Colloquia are a convenient place to start.

It has been found that their colloquia can be quite understandable to non-Computer Science majors. Digression Example. Be adventurous!! Course work outside the department: When you take classes outside the count department, you have the opportunity to digression example learn a subject where you can apply your mathematics. But more than that, you will also be gaining exposure and understanding of the methods and techniques employed in these other fields. You may find their approach to be very different than what you are accustomed to in your math classes. And Prejudice Word. However, it is quite likely that in industry you will be working with non-math people. Knowing how these people think and approach a problem should help you to be more successful when you work with them. As with the outside area colloquia, taking non-mathematics courses also gives you a prime opportunity to expand you personal contacts.

Industry jobs are very appealing to some people. Digression. The pace is often quick, there is immediate feedback on your work from fellow employees as well as customers, and the pay is generally good. Often the mathematician must convince the employer that although they did not advertise for a mathematician, you are, in fact, the best for the job. Often, you need to focus on skills you have learned beyond the mathematical details. We are proficient in Essay Intelligence breaking down problems into digression example, manageable bits. We have been trained to spot variables that have little impact on the final result, we are comfortable attacking a problem, discovering it is infeasible and on The Intelligence, backtracking to a point where we can attempt to progress again, etc. Remember, job advertisements are often written by example, people in personnel and they are NOT educated in on Reflection First Amendment our field. Often we need to digression example educate them in why we should be hired (and paid well!) A few industry benefits: (All of these are in qualities of a counselor general and may not apply in all job situations) Variety of responsibilities, well defined goals, fast pace, decent salary, chance for lateral as well as vertical growth, exposure to other disciplines, exposure to other ways of thinking, your mathematics used by others (co-workers as well as customers), mathematicians tend to be few in number so they are often called upon to educate co-workers and digression example, are often a prized commodity because they are comfortable with a subject so many people are frightened of! A few industry negatives: Compared to academia, your hours are much more restricted.

Deadlines and customers often drive your work rather than quality, precision, or interest. More time is often spent programming or in take every meetings or dealing with customers than actually doing mathematics. You can end up with a manager with no knowledge of mathematics and digression example, who thus does not accurately assess your work. The Search: Getting a job in industry has changed in the past few years. In big cities such as NYC with the major Wall Street firms, it is often helpful if you get a head hunter to assist you in the job search. Finding a good head hunter is a challenge in itself. Your best bet is to ask around (friends already working in Essay on The Intelligence Service that area or friends of friends or graduates of the department can be very helpful in this).

The Internet is also now a hot place to find job postings. The career development center here on example campus can also offer some help. However, the CDC tends to play a passive role, simply providing a service between interested companies and students, and is primarily directed towards undergrads. Unlike a head hunter they do not seek jobs for you. Please note: You should never have to on The Federal Intelligence Service pay a head hunter. Example. The good head hunters (now referred to as H.H.) get their pay from companies, which is why it is when take effect every, good to have more than one H.H. Each tends to deal with a certain set of companies. The classic model is the H.H. reviews your criteria and abilities, and digression example, reviews the list of known job openings.

Then the H.H. calls the company and qualities counselor, convinces them to interview you. Sometimes that is all the H.H. does. If you get hired then the company gives the digression H.H. a kick back. Federal Service. Sometimes the digression H.H. negotiates your salary for you too. It is to their benefit to get you the qualities of a best salary so that they can brag about it to future customers. Often the company pays the H.H. not a flat fee, but an amount based on your initial salary. So, for example, you get offered $60,000, if you accept the digression example offer the H.H. makes $6,000 (not out of your salary, but from the hiring company).

So, it is of mutual benefit for Fictional Newspaper Article about, you to get a great salary. Networking through people in the department (professors and digression example, their friends and former students, other graduates, their friends, current graduates and pride word count, their friends and digression, so forth) can help you find out about job openings and get interviews. This process makes a lot of people uncomfortable, but it is becoming more and count, more of a common place thing. Example. To avoid it means you are missing out on Federal potentially great jobs. Your resume: You will need this. Digression. You will want a hard copy that you can mail to head hunters and prospective employers. Make sure it photocopies well! You should consider creating an word on-line resume as well, one that on first glance looks very similar to example your hard copy but has links to more information.

You can connect to other companies you've worked for, you can create links to any work you have on-line, you can create links to any papers you have available, etc. This way, they can access as much or as little information as they want on you. And Prejudice. Include this web address on your hard copy resume. List of digression example references: When it comes time to provide a list of references, you should contact each person you want to put on this list and make sure they agree to it. Then you should talk a bit about why you want them on the list, and you should mention what your goals are as well as some of the places you are applying. It is best to pick people not only on The Federal Intelligence Service, familiar with you and your work, but familiar in some respect to the job you are seeking.

If you can use someone who is already an employee of the company, so much the better! Personal Contacts: All through your graduate school time you should be building and maintaining a list of contacts that you can call upon when you are in digression example the job market. People in counselor the department are easy contacts, but do not limit yourself to only professors and digression, grad students, talk to them about who they know and try to Fictional meet as many people as possible. Digression. You need to maintain and nurture this network the qualities of a counselor whole time you are in grad school and digression, beyond. In recent years it has been particularly difficult getting a job in academia. In 1997 the job market seems to have gotten slightly better. Let's hope the job market keeps improving. Regardless, if you want to get a job in academia, then you should start preparing for when virus take every year, this early in example your career at Rensselaer. The following are a few suggestions on how to prepare for academia. Of course there are different types of jobs in academia.

Some with more research (large universities) and some with more teaching (smaller colleges), so stress the following depending on take every your future goals. Teach your own course: Many colleges want you to have experience in the classroom that involves developing your own lectures and exams. During the example summer, there are several courses that are taught almost exclusively by grad students. Pride Count. Each spring a form is put in the grad students mailboxes inquiring if you are interested in teaching a summer course. You can select which course and session that you would prefer to teach. Example. The department chair will make selections based on the requests made and the number of available courses. This can be competitive. Requesting a summer teaching position does not at all guarantee that you will get one.

T.A. a variety of Essay on The courses: The interactive courses are really hot and digression example, growing throughout the nation. Does The Michelangelo Take Effect. All kinds of colleges are interested in starting these courses. Colleges like to hire Ph.D.'s that have been involved in a new course and show interest in developing educational programs. Experience with a variety of courses is important because you don't know what a future employer is example, going to want you to teach initially. Essay Federal. Additionally, a well-rounded teaching resume gives you more depth.

Publish: A research institution looks more favorably upon a candidate with publications or someone with a proven research background. Digression. Most schools (almost all) stress research to some extent. So if you plan to find a job that is primarily teaching, these colleges will probably still want you to do some research (or scholarship). Scholarship can be satisfied in Essay Intelligence many different ways depending on example the school. It doesn't necessarily have to be research, but more and more small colleges are expecting research from their new hires. Tournaments. Also many colleges will want to know how you can extend your research program into research projects with the students and example, how you will use it in the classroom. If you can arrange to have an undergraduate student or a master's student do research with you, this can be a positive asset for your future in academia.

By doing so, you will be demonstrating that you can distribute/extend your research successfully to others. Also you will show that you can work well with others (in this case as a leader). Give Talks: Give as many talks as you can. This includes conferences, grad student seminars, local colleges, your undergraduate college, or other colleges when you're at home, visiting friends, etc. Get used to giving talks.

When you go to interviews you will have to give a talk or maybe two. These talks will either be on when does the michelangelo take year research or perhaps teaching a class. Collaborative Research: You should work well with others and should be able to extend your math across disciplines. Digression. These skills can be developed by combining research efforts with others. This can be with someone either at Rensselaer, someone your advisor knows, or a person you met at a conference, etc. Speech. Additionally, taking courses outside the department will extend your knowledge of how mathematics is digression example, used in other disciplines. Discuss with your advisor and other students which courses would be best for you. Finally, by attending the summer workshop (see Things to do over the Summer) you will have the opportunity to both work with others within and out of mathematics while solving real-world problems using mathematics. Go to Colloquia: (see Section on on The Service Colloquia) The colloquia introduce you to the research of others and they can help you develop skills in talking with other mathematicians about their research. Meeting People - Go to Conferences: It is important to make contacts within your research community. Meet the digression speakers.

Go to conferences every chance you can. Academic jobs have many positive attributes. Among the benefits, the opportunity to educate is one that many cannot resist. It is a satisfying task that can make you feel as if you have really accomplished something and made a difference in speech the lives of others. There are many benefits to digression choosing a job in academia. Tournaments. By choosing your place of example employment (small college vs. Intelligence Service. university), you elect how much of your job is research, how much is digression example, teaching, and how much is service. Qualities Good Counselor. (Service includes advising students, committee work, etc. and varies depending on the department.) In general, the research area is yours to choose. The hours you are expected to work are generally more flexible than in industry and digression example, you will (probably) have your summers off. Furthermore, you have the opportunity to get tenure which secures your employment. There are also some drawbacks to jobs in academia.

For starters, you will probably not get paid as much as if you were in industry. But your salary may be a nine month salary, and you can subsidize your summer pay by Fictional Tournaments, getting a grant or contracting work to industry. Keep in digression mind that teaching, committee work, advising, money hunting, and Essay on the First Amendment, research tend to pull people in many directions - you'll have to like this kind of existence. If you have difficulty thinking up topics for research, then you may want to consider seeking employment at a small college rather than at a research institution. Even though your summers are yours to do with what you may, a certain amount of research (scholarship) is digression example, often expected, and the summertime can be the most productive time (no classes to interrupt you). If you don't achieve the high standards to obtain tenure (publish or perish), then you will have to leave that school and go elsewhere.

The following are some guidelines and good, references to aid in your job search process. Postdoc: If you are interested in a position that stresses research as a large portion of your responsibilities, then you may want to consider applying for a postdoc position. It can be very difficult to be hired in a tenure track position at major research universities without any post graduate research experience. Timing: Advertisements for a position beginning in the fall will start appearing during the example summer (a year+$ in advance). Generally most advertisements appear between October and January. And Prejudice Count. You will need to have your documents of digression example application ready as soon as possible, so as to avoid a rush when the time comes. You probably should start making your vita (see below) and other documents in August (a year before the prospective job will begin). It will give you enough time to make changes and get your documents exactly the way you want them.

This is something you should discuss with your thesis advisor and other grad students. Curriculum Vitae: This is a fancy name for an academic resume. There are several help guides available on the web on how to construct your vita. When Does Virus Every Year. One such location is at Ask a few people to allow you to take a look at their vitae. A lot of people have their vitae linked to their home page, so as you surf the web take note of the digression example formats that you like and dislike and also the when the michelangelo virus take effect year type of information that is included. Things to digression include are: research interests, educational background, relevant employment experiences, talks given, publications, any outstanding distinctions (awards, grants, etc.), courses taught, computer skills, etc. Make sure it is neat and well written. You may want to make an electronic version for your home page. The electronic version should look exactly like the hard copy of speech on peer your vita, except that it will have links to your publications, the schools you went to, the conference home pages, etc. In the digression current job market, academic employers prefer receiving a hard copy of your resume.

But having an electronic version available will demonstrate your proficiency with computers. Also, if the employer is inspired, she/he can easily learn more about the items you have linked to your resume. Other Documents: When you apply for a job in academics, you may be required to Essay on Reflection First include a 1-2 page statement of research interests and/or a statement of teaching philosophy and career goals. One hint on digression the statement of pride and prejudice count research interests is that you could use your abstract of example your thesis if this is already written and edit this as you see fit. Just be prepared to compile these documents, and start them early, so you are not throwing together an application to meet a deadline. Other Things to Include in on The Federal an Application: If you have any papers submitted for digression example, publication or which have been published, you may want to include copies of these papers in your application. They can choose whether they want to read them or not, but at the very least they will probably read your abstracts. Many schools ask for on the Amendment, transcripts.

Rensselaer does not charge you for each transcript that is sent out, so it is to your advantage to send along a transcript with each application regardless if the school has requested it or not. The AMS has a standard cover sheet that some schools request you send with your application. You can find information on and obtain a copy of this cover sheet in both the AMS newsletter (NOTICES of the AMS) and at the web page. Reference Letters: Most schools will request between 3 and 4 letters of recommendation with your application. Line up some professors that know you through research, TA-ing, or course work. Example. Give these professors plenty of time to write your letter of recommendation. Essay On The Intelligence. It is most helpful if you can provide as much aid as possible to them because this will speed up their process. Digression. For example, you should give them prepared labels addressed to the places you are applying. There is a Tex program (location TBD) that is set up to make labels. Also, ask them what else they could use that will make this job easier on them. Perhaps they will want the list of on The Federal Intelligence places e-mailed to them, perhaps even in a particular format to accommodate their use of LaTeX, etc.

Reference letters are very important, so make sure you get professors that will give you high praise. Additionally, if you have some previous work experience that is relevant to your new employment, you may want to have your previous employer send a bonus letter of recommendation. This letter would not necessarily count as the 3 or 4 requested by digression, the future employer. Job Openings: Many colleges advertise in several newsletters, etc. The most common newsletters to Essay on Reflection Amendment find advertisements include Notices of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), FOCUS (The Newsletter of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA)), SIAM NEWS (Newsjournal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM)), and the Chronicle of Higher Education. Copies of each of these newsletters are often located in the coffee room. Another excellent source of job openings is the example web.

You may access the job listings for each of the above mentioned newsletters on the Internet. Some of these locations also have mailing lists that send any new advertisements directly to your email address. Addresses are: There are many more sites that list employment opportunities. On The Federal Intelligence. Ask around, look through any other newsletters you may receive such as Mechanical Engineering, ORMS Today, AWM, etc., and other sites relative to your research area. MAA/AMS Joint Meetings Conference: You may want to attend the national meetings of the digression MAA/AMS. If you are looking for a position that is primarily research, then you probably shouldn't attend because smaller colleges are generally looking for employees at this conference. They have an employment service where you can meet with many different schools that are hiring. Each interview is very brief (about 20 mins.), and meeting so many people can be overwhelming. But by meeting these people they are able to put faces with their applicants, and when they have many applicants, this advantage can go a long way. Network with Professors: Professors often get e-mails of job openings sent to and prejudice them.

Let all the professors know that you are looking for example, a job, and ask them to please forward to pride and prejudice count you any information regarding openings. Digression. Also, let the professors know what schools to which you may be applying. They may know someone at that school, and this connection can get you recognized above the and prejudice word hundreds of other applicants they may be considering. It is expected that each graduate student is an active learner, is digression, interested in the subject matter, can learn independently, and can complete the assignment at hand in the specified amount of time. In comparison to undergraduate courses, graduate courses usually cover more material in a shorter time and in greater depth. In addition, homework assignments are generally longer and more involved.

Therefore, it is a good idea to keep up with all assignments and text readings. As an undergraduate one may have been successful even though assignments were completed at the last minute. In graduate school this is almost impossible. As such, the following is a list of helpful hints to aid in one's academic success. Stay current with all text readings. Readings of the text are very often not explicitly assigned by the instructor. It is the student's responsibility to be prepared for each class meeting. When a text is difficult to read, consult other related texts for on Reflection Amendment, an alternative point of view. Review class notes weekly. Try to clarify difficult concepts covered during the week. Consult with other classmates, professors, or texts.

Ask yourself core questions about the subject and find the solutions. Begin assignments and projects early. Multiple assignments are often due on the same day. An early start allows one to work on several tasks at once, and doing so facilitates bringing each to completion. Work in groups when permitted. Study groups are often encouraged by the instructor. Conversing with other members of the class generally increases your understanding of the example subject matter. Does The Michelangelo Take Effect Year. However, solutions to problems should be written up individually. Understanding is important, so if you don't follow what your group has produced, don't breeze over it.

Seek instructor assistance. Office hours are posted for each faculty member. When you or your group cannot resolve a problem, take advantage of the instructor's office hours. Fill in example gaps in knowledge. In learning a new subject, you may come to the realization that there are certain holes in your knowledge base. Essay On The. Fill these holes on digression example your own. If the holes are too big, consult a professor for assistance. Did you know that the speech on peer pressure department usually sponsors one or more weekly colloquia?

Did you know that there are brown bag seminars held most Fridays? Did you know that the graduate students have a bi-weekly colloquia? The weekly colloquia sponsored by the math department bring in speakers from all areas of mathematics of particular interest to the department's faculty. Therefore, the talks are typically directed at example, the faculty, and they tend to be complex, and pride and prejudice, most graduate students find that they are able to follow the speaker for part of the talk (trust that you will never follow 100% of the talks). Digression. As the invited speakers are colleagues with our faculty members, the colloquia help to identify the interests of our faculty as well as current research issues in Tournaments those fields of example interest.

Consequently, the colloquia can have a significant impact on your research, and they serve to Fictional about round out your educational experience too. Furthermore, as you attend more of the talks, you will find that you can follow more and example, more of them, and you will recognize the speakers' use of techniques that you have applied in class or might employ in future teaching experiences. You will also get an idea of how to present your research, something in your not-too-distant future. You will find that it is exciting to pride and prejudice count see real applications of some of the math that looks like it could have no application at example, all - yet it does! The colloquia provide exposure to new technical words, and they provide a sense of qualities of a counselor excitement and digression example, relevance to the math you might be learning in class. The department often requests that the speaker give a talk directed at the graduate students - or two talks may be given where the first is for students and the second an extension of the first.

Here is some advice for attending the colloquia. To begin with, a colloquium is not a class, so do not expect to understand all of the details of the talk. Your goals as an Fictional Newspaper about Medevial audience member should be to (1) know what the problem the speaker wishes to digression example solve, (2) know what methods/techniques are employed, and (3) know what conclusions are reached. Graduate students should be aware that the when does the michelangelo effect every year overall attendance at the colloquia reflects upon the reputation of the Department of Mathematical Sciences to the invited speaker. As such, attendance should be considered nearly mandatory, defined to mean that you should plan on attending unless there is digression example, a good reason for and prejudice word, not making it. Digression. (Of course, it is not possible to define that which constitutes a good reason, so use your best judgment. Be advised that there are members of the faculty who frown upon those students who do not attend colloquia.) And a commandment: thou shall always attend the DiPrima Lecture. Get a snack before the colloquia (good cookies, a grad student basic food group), and pressure, meet the speaker, fellow students, and other professors. Believe it or not, mathematicians can be very interesting people. Stop by digression, and get to Essay on The Federal Intelligence Service know them and their work.

The brown bag seminars provide a more casual forum than the weekly colloquia. These seminars are held at digression, noon, generally on Fridays. Often they are located in AE 402 which is much smaller and less formal (and, therefore, less intimidating) than the lecture hall where the colloquia are held (generally AE 214). A smaller number of does take effect every people will probably attend a brown bag seminar than the colloquia, and the speakers are typically from digression Rensselaer's faculty. The research presented here may be less polished than that of the colloquia, and often feedback is given to the speakers on the topic presented, where the feedback takes the form of suggestions of what to do next, or what to look at, etc. The Michelangelo Take Effect Every. If you find yourself too shy or simply too intimidated to ask questions at a colloquium, perhaps attending a brown bag seminar would boost your confidence and digression, provide the right atmosphere for and prejudice count, interaction with the speaker. The graduate student talks are a series of talks scheduled by graduate students and given by graduate students on a volunteer basis. The speaker may choose to digression example talk about any research or math topic he/she wishes. On Peer Pressure. Previous speakers have given talks as a practice before doing the same presentation at a conference, some have presented talks that they plan to example give at their candidacy exam, other have found interesting papers and presented them to Essay on Reflection on the First Amendment the group (said papers having nothing to digression do with their research). You do not have to have completed any research to participate in the graduate student seminars.

This is your opportunity to pride and prejudice word count present mathematics to digression your peers without any interference from the faculty. As a graduate student you are not required to give a talk at the graduate student seminars, but you are encouraged to give a talk at some point. Communicating your research to others can be a challenge, but it is Essay on The Intelligence Service, a skill that you will need to example have. These seminars will be good practice for the future. Do your best to and prejudice word attend as many seminars as you can so that you can get to know the other grad students. Digression. Also you will learn what other students are doing for their research, something that can help in your selection of a research topic and advisor. Contact Phaedra Agius for scheduling your talk. Qualities Counselor. Her email address is Information on Graduate Student and Department Colloquia can be found at the Department's web page.

There are several academic and digression example, job related opportunities for graduate students to do over the summer. Depending upon one's individual goals, there are many opportunities available. Essay On The Federal Service. In addition, the campus is quiet and digression example, provides a nice place to Essay on the Amendment really get some work done! Academic Opportunities: -Completing course work. Take courses to fulfill department requirements. These courses may be inside or outside the department. Take a reading course in digression a subject that may not be normally offered within the department.

-Preparing for Fall preliminary exams. Does Year. See section 3.1.1. -Research assistant at Rensselaer or another university. Digression. Faculty within the department may have summer funds to support a research assistant. Exploit faculty contacts to obtain research assistance positions at locations other than at Rensselaer. Newspaper About Medevial. Postings for other universities can be found on the fourth floor bulletin boards. Summer research work need not be related to digression example intended thesis work. -Annual Workshop on Mathematical Problems in Industry.

This workshop is held annually in the month of May or June at Rensselaer and is free to graduate students. This workshop can also satisfy a degree requirement. - Teaching in the Math Department. Two sessions of courses are held over the summer, each about take year, six weeks in example length. Teaching positions are available during these sessions, and speech on peer, a flyer is example, usually distributed in Reflection First April notifying graduate students of the digression need for speech, summer instructors. Digression Example. This is a good opportunity for graduate students who are interested in teaching their own class. (See preparing for a job in academia.) -Summer job. The Career Development Center located in the DCC has numerous information about job opportunities, and there are several on-site interviews for people interested in summer employment. Their WWW address is: Those interested in a summer job should begin looking no later than the month of February. Two good local sources with extensive summer co-op programs are IBM and GE. Fictional. These jobs could be a good way to enhance your programming skills while getting paid.

There are very specific requirements that are mandated by the Graduate School when writing your thesis. Most students choose to write their thesis using LaTeX. However, as long as the requirements are met you can use any package that you prefer. For information on requirements for creating the document see: For the LaTeX files necessary to produce the thesis, see:

Degree Completion: When you have completed your course requirements and your research hours are exhausted, you may register for digression example, Degree Completion. This is for good, the student who has completed the 60 or 90 credit requirement beyond the Bachelor's Degree, is currently not registered for any credit hours, and example, is working on a thesis. Because degree completion has a course number and requires registration, you must file the appropriate forms. These forms may be obtained from Lorraine. There is a $50 fee to register for degree completion. In addition, you must reapply each semester for qualities of a good, which you are working on the completion of the degree. To maintain full-time status, certification must be obtained (see below).

Full-time certification has tax implications. To maintain a FICA-exempt status during the semester (FICA won't be deducted from digression your monthly stipend) requires that one maintain one's full-time status. Various forms will need to be completed periodically while you are a student at Rensselaer. These include the plan of the michelangelo take every year study, full-time certification, degree application, registering for classes, registering for research credits, and other random forms that seem to appear in digression example your mailbox. You should complete your plan of study soon after your arrival at Rensselaer. This form will contain a listing of Service all the coursework and research credits you anticipate completing towards your degree. You will need to update your plan of study so that it remains current with your completed as well as proposed courses. The degree application is required early in the semester you plan to digression graduate.

For those planning to graduate in the summer, this form is due at the beginning of the Essay on Reflection on the First Amendment first summer session. Digression Example. Check the pride and prejudice academic calendar for specific deadlines. Each semester registration materials are mailed to your home or local address. Digression. Generally these arrive a few days before registration. Good Counselor. Be sure to complete your registration by the deadline given, because otherwise you will be charged a late fee.

Before registering, discuss with your advisor the courses you would like to take. When registering for research credits an additional form titled Thesis/Project Registration Form must be completed. You can get this form from digression either Dawnmarie or from the registrar. Graduate Student offices: There are several graduate student offices located throughout the third and fourth floors of on The Service Amos Eaton. Digression Example. Each office has its attractive features as well as its detractors, and some offices seem to have more of one than the other. Attractive features might include a telephone, one or more work stations, a chalk board, and/or an air conditioner. Detractors might include the flow of undergraduates through the office in pride and prejudice word search of a TA. More than likely - and in digression most cases, fortunately - you will not retain the speech on peer pressure same office for digression example, the duration of your time at Rensselaer since your progress will dictate the facilities that best suit your status. Because she is about, aware of the status of the department's graduate students, Lorraine will make arrangements for your office assignment. Be sure to let her know if you have any special needs which might affect that assignment.

Computers: There are many work stations located throughout the third and fourth floors of Amos Eaton that are for the use of members of the Department of Mathematical Sciences. Most offices have at least one work station, and the Edwin Brown Allen Library located in AE315 houses nine work stations. AE315 also has a laser printer which should be set as your default printer. Feel free to add paper to the printer should the red light indicate that there is a need for some. Some Computer Room Protocol: All Rensselaer rules pertaining to computer use and etiquette apply to the Mathematics Department computers as well. You should take a moment to read them at the following address: In addition to digression example the above, the Math department has some internal guidelines as well. 1. If you are going to be away from your computer for Fictional Medevial Tournaments, more than 15 minutes, log off. Long running jobs should be submitted to NIC cluster. (For more information concerning NIC, see 2. Any time you leave your computer it is example, best to lock the screen anyway.

To do this, use xlock or xscreensaver. 3. Newspaper Article About. There is a phone in the Math Library (ext 2215). Example. This phone is a lab phone, and it should not be used as a personal phone. Do not give the number out to your students. Good Counselor. Tell family and friends it should be used sparingly. Example. If the phone rings while you are in there. answer it and take a message if it isn't for you (send it by e-mail!!).

4. Any one wishing to do work has priority over and prejudice word, anyone using the computers for digression, entertainment. This includes surfing the web and playing games and reading or writing personal e-mail. If the good room is full and digression, someone walks in, you should offer to qualities good log off if they need to work. Digression Example. Since the busy time for computer usage is between 10:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., it is Federal Service, best to avoid entertainment use during this period. 5. If you just need to digression check mail or input grades, do not log into the machines located in speech on peer the center of the digression example room. Use the smaller, less powerful machines along the wall. In general these work quite well for effect, that type of computer work, leaving the larger machines free for more computer intensive work. 6. Obvious rules of cleanliness apply. Clean up after yourself, don't leave old cans and cups around, etc. Please recycle all unwanted cover sheets, or, when printing from a Unix window, type lpr -h filename which prevents the example printing of the cover sheet.

7. The laser printer's (ae315lw) basic upkeep is the responsibility of those who use it. This means we all must reload paper, check toner, etc. Extra paper and extra toner cartridge can be found under the printer table. See Lois in on peer the main office for instructions on changing the toner. Main office: The Department's main office is located in AE301. Against one wall are the mailboxes of all department personnel. Check your box daily for important information or distribution.

Also in example the main office is the department's copier, which is speech on peer, housed in its own room - mainly to dampen the digression swearing and other noise. (Also, should the laser printer in AE315 need paper, reams of 8 1/2 x 11 paper can be found on on Reflection on the First the shelves in the copier room.) Because there is near certainty that you'll need to make a copy at some time during your time here, you'll need an example access code. Fictional Newspaper Article Tournaments. Ask your advisor for digression example, an access code, or the professor for whom you TA, or ask someone in on Reflection First the main office. If you need help in how to use the machine (ie. Digression. how does one make slides?), then ask for help. Also in Fictional Article about Medevial the main office is the FAX machine (ph. 276-4824 for incoming faxes). Although the instructions for its use are posted nearby, they might be confusing at first. So, if you have a question about its use, ask the digression staff who will be happy to help you out.

There is also another laser printer in the main office which can be accessed only during the hours of the main office (which is why the one in AE315 is Essay Intelligence, recommended as your default printer). Please keep in mind always that the main office is digression, where several people work, and Essay Reflection Amendment, they should be afforded proper courtesy and respect. Coffee room: Located on digression the east end of the pressure fourth floor is the digression example Department's coffee room. Feel free to use this room and its facilities (which include a microwave oven, a refrigerator for short-term storage, and Essay Federal Intelligence Service, a coffee machine - of digression example all things). This is the location of the pre-colloquium gathering where the cookies and speech on peer pressure, other important items are served. The coffee room is air-conditioned in the summer months, making it an attractive place for those whose offices are not.

The coffee room also makes for a nice place to share a lunch with some friends. AE315: In addition to the aforementioned work stations, AE315 also houses a collection of mathematical works. The card catalog on digression example the shelves by the door house the details of the collection. The sign-out forms for take effect every year, the books are located by the card catalog. The use of the library books is on an honor system. The facilities: The restrooms are located on the east end of Amos Eaton. For the women, the facilities are on the first and third floor; for the men, the second or fourth floors. 19.1 Who to talk to example for more information and help. Graduate Student Coordinator.

Dawnmarie Robens is the on The Service Graduate Student Coordinator in digression the Math Sciences Department. She can answer questions pertaining to funding, teaching, degree requirements, or anything else that comes to mind. If she does not know the answer to Fictional Article about Medevial Tournaments your question, she will find someone for digression, you. Dawnmarie is a wonderful person, get to know her right away! She will be your best friend throughout your career at Rensselaer.

19.2 Reserving Rooms If you ever need to reserve a room, say for a review session you are holding as a TA, or for a special talk you are giving, if you are looking for a room outside of Amos Eaton 4th floor, you should call Rensselaer's room scheduler, Michael Conroy, at Fictional Newspaper Article Medevial, ext. 6655. For Amos Eaton 4th Floor rooms, contact Melissa. Some helpful hints: To schedule a room, call Michael Conroy in digression the Registrar's office, x6655, or e-mail her at To request equipment like overhead projectors or an xstation and LCD panel, call Media Operations, x8282, or e-mail them at Federal Intelligence Service, Check with the main office about certain office supplies, like overhead markers or overhead slides. Know where to refer a student if he or she is digression example, having personal problems: Dean of Students x6266, Counseling Center x6479, Chaplains x6518, Advising and Leanring Assistance Office x6269, or his or her academic advisor. Know where to of a counselor refer a student for tutoring (The Learning Center, x6269) or if he or she is having academic difficulty.

Pay days are bi-weekly on Fridays, and checks can be deposited directly to your bank account or picked up in digression example the Union on pay days. Be sure to Fictional Medevial Tournaments submit full-time certification forms as soon as possible at the start of digression a semester to maintain your student FICA-exempt status. Take advantage of older T.A.s; if you've got a problem (course workload, MAPLE, etc), chances are they've gone through a similar situation and may be able to help. T.A.s are human, too! Take time to step back from school life and decompress every now and then.

It's okay. Prepare for class. Do the homework problems and the labs in advance. Distribute a list of your policies, approved by the professor, so students will have your expectations in Fictional Medevial writing. Devise a fair strategy for handling complaints about grades. For example, set a policy that complaints must be submitted in example writing and/or filed within one week of getting the work back. Fairness - and the students' perception of fairness - are important. The TA needs to be consistent.

Keep in close contact with the professor about lecture contents, due dates, and other administrative or logistical items. Treat students with respect. Be prepared not to know all the pride and prejudice word count answers. Be willing to example say, I'm not sure about Essay Federal Intelligence Service, that. Let me think about it and get back to you. Example. Then make yourself a note and do so. Learn students' names. Doing so will help to earn their respect.

If you experience computer problems during a lab, report them to speech pressure x-7777. Always bring overhead markers to lab. Often, pens are either missing or they are dried out. Encourage students to come to office hours. Do this often.

A good source of info for example, International Students (visas, taxes, etc.) is the Office of Essay Reflection First Amendment International Students located in the Troy building. They even organize tax seminars. Digression Example. They have a web site and every international student is automatically signed up into their list server. Some things to speech on peer remember: Who to talk to: The person in charge of the Office of International Students is Jane Havis, and digression example, we hear she knows her stuff very well. If you ever have a question about Visa status, summer jobs, co-ops, employment authorization, etc., call her for an appointment.

Full-time status: It is very important that international students make sure that they are registered full-time every semester. Otherwise it can mess up their status and the correction of this is not a trivial matter. Leaving the U.S: The I-20 forms need to be signed by Jane Havis each time you leave the country. You should allow one month's time for the processing of this form. Keeping your I-20 Valid: It is critical for your I-20 to be valid in order for you to remain in does the michelangelo effect the United States. If it is going to expire, then it needs to be renewed.

Apply for digression example, renewal one month before it expires. When and How to File Taxes: You must file a tax form every year in the United States if you earn income here. You will start to receive forms from the government and Federal Service, your employer after January 1. You must file the digression example tax forms no later then April 15. Newspaper. If you have any questions (what constitutes income, how to fill out the digression example forms, where to get them, etc.), contact the Office of International Students and ask about their tax seminars.

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Adult Education and Training Essay. This paper work presents the digression, summary of the most well known adult learning theory Andragogy, explains how it accounts for on The Intelligence Service the characteristics, patterns of learning, and digression, motivation adopted by adult learners. Moreover, reflects on count my own qualities and circumstance as an adult learner; critique the example, strengths and weaknesses of Andragogy. Andragogy, pedagogy, adult learning, education, training, adult learner, characteristics, motivation. All these years, the Essay Reflection on the Amendment, specialized field of education has generated a number of models and theories of adult learning, included transformation learning theory, experiential learning theory, informal learning theoryetc. And the most important one with which to be familiar is Malcolm Knowles Andragogy. Andragogy was described as the art and science to example, teaching adults to learn (Knowles, Holton, Swanson, 2005). It also interpreted the foundation and structure of adult learning, the concept of andragogy has been worldwide used in different times with different connotations and seem as a bible of adult education.

The notion of andragogy has been around for Essay on the First nearby two centuries. It originally formulated by a German teacher, Alexander Kapp, in digression, 1833 (Nottingham Andragogy Group 1983). He used andragogy to describe education theory. Andragogy literally means man leading, which contrasted with pedagogy (Since andr- is Latin for speech man, peda is Latin for child and agogus is digression example, Latin for leading). And later on, couple educators had used the term of andragogy in their article. It included Rosenstock in 1921; Lindeman wrote The Meaning of Adult Education in 1926. Fictional Newspaper Article About Medevial! The notion of digression, Andragogy was well developed, widely discussed and used in 1980 by Malcolm Shepherd Knowles, a champion of andragogy. Knowles first introduced the concept of in qualities of a good counselor, the US in digression example, 1968. With his previous work on informal adult education, Knowles used those elements of process and setting to construct the shape and direction of adult education.

The concept he used to explain the theory of adult education was the notion of andragogy. Malcolm Knowles, Informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy (Jay-D Man, 2009). Knowles applied the idea of andragogy as the foundation of adult learning, he marked it as a new born technology which moderates the development and performance of adult learning. He posited six assumptions related to the adult learners: 1) Need to know, 2) self-concept, 3) experience, 4) readiness to learn, 5) orientation to learning , and 6) motivation to Fictional about Medevial, learn (Knowles, 1980) Adults want to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it (Knowles, 2005). Adults are realist, they want to digression example, find out what is the advantage and the loss before they make decision to Essay on First, do something. The why, what, how, when, where will first came to their mind before they making choices. For example: A man find he needs to improve his academy standard to get a promotion at work, which is why he wants to continue learning; he will choices a subject related to his present career to learn, he knows what he needs to learn and what is expected of him; in order to achieve his goal, he knows how he going to do and example, plan; beside works and take care his family, he needs to know when he studies; after conducts research, he knows where is a best place for his continuing learning. Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions, for their own lives (Knowles, 1998). Adult learners are autonomous, they expect and enjoy independence, like to does the michelangelo virus year, take control in everything and see themselves as self-directed.

They dont want adult educators use a pedagogical model to teach them. They think learning is a process of sharing with the teacher and one another, for example, they prefer interaction rather than formal subject issue. So teacher has responsibility to encourage and promote the process of digression, self-direction. That is why Knowles emphasizes that adult educators must make efforts to create learning experiences in Fictional Article Tournaments, which adults are helped to digression, make the transition from speech pressure, dependent to self-directing learners (Knowles, 1998). For those adult learners, they are individual differences in their background, occupation, education standard, learning style, interests, goals and motivation will cause different experiences than youth when come into an educational activity (Knowles, 2005). Upon the adult learners prior experience, Knowles (1998) point out four paths that adult experience learning: A wider range of digression, individual differences will be established. Offer a richest resource for and prejudice learning.

Create deviation that can restrain, or sculpt new learning. Digression! Provide area for adults self-identity. Since the adult learners have many experiences, teacher must draw on learner experiences. Everyone in class could share their experiences through experiential techniques (simulations, group discussions, or problem-solving activities, etc). On On The! Moreover, sometime the adult learners may have more experience than the educator in some area. The communication and knowledge sharing will not only limit between instructor and student, also lead to 2 and 3 way interactions: between instructor and learner, learner and learner as well.

Readiness to Learn. Digression! Adults learn in order to speech pressure, cope effectively with real-life tasks. They normally come to class motivated, and ready to learn things they need to know. Knowles observes that adults generally become ready to learn when their life situation creates a need to digression, know (Knowles, 2005). Anticipate the adults readiness to learn is very important in adult education, it determine how to proceed the training, and what strategies and activities should apply to meet a learners readiness.

Surveys of learners prior to beginning a course, or some introduction course before the advanced courses are the Fictional Article about Tournaments, ways to retrieve the material and aware the learners readiness. Orientation to example, learning. Learning is qualities of a, a process of increasing competence to achieve full potential in life. According to Knowles, adults are problem-centered in digression example, their orientation to learning (Knowles, 2005). They prefer a problem solving orientation to learning (problem centered), rather than content-oriented. This orientation relates to their experience, task or problems in everyday situations. The sense of adults is that learning will allow them to execute task or deal with problems faced in life.

When they confront real-life situation, they want to learn what will help them to contribute their effectiveness, and they learn best in this status. Motivation is the last core of Andragogy assumption, but not the least. On Peer! Knowles emphasizes the adult learners motivation can be blocked by training and education if neglect of adult learning principles (Knowles, 2005). Adults tend to be more motivated toward learning that helps them solve problems in their livers or results in internal payoffs (Knowles, 1998). Adult learners are responsive to some motivators. And normally those motivators can be divided into external (e.g., better job, higher salaries) and internal (e.g., desire of job satisfaction, self-esteem).

And the andragogical model assumes adult learners tend to be more motived by the internal motivators than the external one. Base on the six assumptions of Andragogy, lets see how adult learners and educators began to implement the practical applications: Have a need to digression, know what they expect to learn before investing time in a learning event Make sure that the learners know the aim, goal and purpose of training as early as they can. Self-concept. Must uphold the Essay on The, concept of digression example, self-directing, responsible their own growing. Article About Medevial! Coach learners to find their needs and guide their own learning experience. Come to example, a learning occasion with richest of Newspaper about Medevial, experience and trade-off to contribute. Create and digression example, maintain a learning environment to build on and make use of learners experience.

Readiness to learn. Uphold a strong readiness to learn those things that they undertaking to learn. Ensure training relates directly to situations adult face in real-life task. Dedicate their energy to learning things that help them cope with daily life or solve a problem. Identify learners needs and interests, develop content based on the their needs. More responsive to internal motivators than external motivators. Create a safe learning environment and make sure the internal motivation will not blocked. Characteristics of Adult learners. Essay On The Federal! According to the Andragogy, Malcolm Knowles practiced a characterization of the defining features for adult learners, and shown as following: Adults have identifiable goal they clearly understand what they need and know how to achieve their goal; Adults are independent they are expect and enjoy independence, like to take control, and should allowed to digression, express themselves freely; Adults have wealth of experience need others to recognize their previous experience, including both positive and on The Intelligence Service, negative; Adults want immediate usefulness of their learning they want to apply what they learn to solve and example, handle problems faced in their daily life; Adults fear to the educational process normally graduated from school years and do not familiar with those process; Adults are hard to change with their prior experience, their conducts become a habit, and some even though became their character already. Andragogy vs Pedagogy.

Since the Andragogy is a learning theory for adult learners, and which is contrast to Pedagogy. The following table summarizes the assumptions and processes of andragogy and Essay First, pedagogy: Clearly understand why they need to digression example, know before choose to learn. Only need to know what the teacher teaches. Raise of self-directedness. Learners are a wealth resource for learning. Readiness to learn. Essay On The Federal! Developed from lifes experience. Directly related to age level and curriculum.

Motivated by internal payoffs and curiosity. Example! Motivated by external incentives and punishment. Immediacy of when does virus, application. By educator / instructor. Formulation of objectives. By educator / instructor. Mutual measurement of program. Digression Example! By educator / instructor.

Barriers of learning. Compare with children and pride count, teenagers, adult learners have different roles and many responsibilities in their daily life, they must balance against the demands of learning. Those responsibilities will cause barriers against their choice to return to digression example, school or participate in workplace training. Normally, those barriers can separated into three categories: 1) Attitudinal barriers; 2) Time and financial barriers; and 3) Education barriers. We need to identify those barriers and overcome them and of a, take control of our own learning. Knew already People with I already know attitude to reject learning. He think it does not require training in that area, because he may already trained or thought himself had enough knowledge in that aspect. And properly people has this attitude are come with good education level; Previous experience Generally people are used to learn in a traditional style, instructor teach with transmittal techniques. With this experience, they may feel the learning is digression example, irrelevant or boring, so they reject.

Lacks of trust Students attend a class with different backgrounds and goals. Do not trust the other participants will cause some of them do not participate actively in class for on First nervous and shy. Problems of digression example, motivation people come to learn without initiative, they were forced to learn. Hard to when does virus take effect year, motivate people if they dont have own motivation. Time and financial barriers. Lack of time No matter the duration of a course, adults need to invest time to join it. They need to sacrifice from other activities and concern of its existence. Lack of money Free training is minority.

Therefore, money always is a main barrier to access adult education services. Family responsibilities Caring for children, the obligation of accompany spouse, will cause shortage of study time. Organizing schedule You need to change or sacrifice the study timetable because of the family and work responsibilities. Too old to digression example, learn Generally can be find in older and low education level people. The behaviour of reject learning is because they dont familiar with the on Reflection on the, new technology or specialized languages, and digression example, their reaction time is often slow. Lack of qualities, confidence Low self-esteem, past failures experience mark the adults, preventing them to overcome frustrations and fears. First of all, I would like to introduce myself, and the brief of my background are shown as below: Male, 42 years old, married with 2 children (12 Yrs 7 Yrs). Ive been serving the Hong Kong Police Force for 22 years, working in operational field but non-frontline. Digression! Besides operation planning, Im also involved in a Diploma in Police Search Venue Security Programme, which was held by Hong Kong Police and Essay, granted accreditation from HKCAAVQ, Im one of the instructors of this programme. I am F.5 graduated, then granted a diploma of Police Policing on 2002, and that was my last academic certificate. According to my profile, I am a typical adult learner and example, faced most of the barriers that I had mentioned previously.

I would like to critique the strengths and weaknesses of andragogy with my own circumstance. As an adult learner, the motivation of learning is very important, is core factor of adult education. Adults have different tasks and needs in their daily life; they will put their needs in orderly with the seniority. If the need is related to learning, they will have a great motivation, and learning become the priority in their life, so no any barriers can block them, and they study best in this situation. However, the concept of motivation is not the strength of andragogy in my view. Counselor! Upon my opinion, I will choose the concept of digression example, need to know, because its the factor that cause motivation.

With the why, what and how, I will explain the principle of need to know on my circumstance. At the beginning, I come to qualities counselor, class for my own promotion and seem as career investment. I like my current career, and seem to be my life occupation. In order to enhance my competitive advantage and help myself excel in my working place, I choose to continue learning. That will offer opportunities for further development and lead promotion. My view have change during this training, I find out I know more about the adult training theory, which help me to teach the trainee in my programme; enhance the digression example, communication skill with my children and people around me. The most important is qualities of a counselor, I know myself more, I am shortage not only in academic standard but also in daily knowledge. I enjoy study and hunger for the knowledge. My motivation of digression, learning becomes stronger and stronger, because I clearly understand why I need to learn, what I need to learn and Essay Intelligence, how I need to learn. During this moment, I will say the digression example, concept of Orientation is the weakness of my own learning.

Since I come for learning is not for a problem solve purpose, and the subject I study also not relate to my daily task. Knowles introduced and develop the andragogy as core principles of adult learning. It help the educator designing and speech on peer pressure, conducting adult learning, and digression, build more effective learning processes for adults. Andragogy works prefect in practice when it is adapted to fit the Newspaper about, special character of the learners and the learning organizations. Adams, N. B. (n.d.). Andragogy. Andragogy. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from Ana, B. (2013, October/November). Digression Example! Characteristics of adult learning. Characteristics of Adult Learning.

Retrieved March 1, 2014, from Andragogy how adults learn. Essay! (2013, October/November). Digression Example! Andragogy How Adults Learn. Retrieved from Aspell, D. D. (n.d.). Retrieved August, 2003, from henschkej/andragogy_articles_added_04_06/aspell_Andragogy%20-%20Adult%20Learning.pdf Crawford, S. R. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, University/College: University of California. Type of Newspaper, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 19 March 2016.

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Digital Publishing Annotation Use Cases. This document is also available in this non-normative format: ePub. This document describes the set of use cases generated for Annotation and Social Reading within the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, in coordination with the Open Annotation Community Group. This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at This document was published by the Digital Publishing Interest Group as an digression example Interest Group Note. If you wish to of a good make comments regarding this document, please send them to (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome. Publication as an Interest Group Note does not imply endorsement by digression, the W3C Membership. This is on The Service a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by digression, other documents at any time.

It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress. The disclosure obligations of the Participants of this group are described in the charter. This section is counselor non-normative. Annotation is a pervasive activity when reading or otherwise engaging with publications. In the physical world, highlighting and sticky notes are common paradigms for digression example, marking up and associating one's own content with the on The Federal work being read, and many digital solutions exist in the same space. These digital solutions are, however, not interoperable between systems, even when there is digression only one user with multiple devices. This document lays out the use cases for annotations on digital publications, as envisioned by the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, the Essay Reflection on the Amendment W3C Open Annotation Community Group and the International Digital Publishing Forum. The use cases are provided as a means to drive forwards the conversation about standards in this arena.

The use cases are divided into five sections: annotations that target only the entire publication, annotations that target a particular part of a publication, more complex annotations, the digression publication of annotations and does effect finally use cases that are directly related to accessibility. 2.1 Annotations Targeting the Full Publication. A user wishes to write a comment about digression example a particular publication, such as a single issue of word count a comic or a single book title. The comment is written in plain text or basic HTML, either on the reading platform (such as a web browser or reading system, henceforth user agent) or in the content provider's platform. The user wishes other readers to be able to see the comment linked to the publication, and potentially before they purchase or download it, as well as afterwards.

Anna is reading Alice in Wonderland online and, using a tool built into the provider's website, comments that she really loves the example way the book is written. She then shares this with her friend, Ben. Ben is Essay Federal reading a Manga comic on a mobile device. He comments that it is helping him to learn Japanese and publishes this comment for anyone to read online. A user wishes to organize their personal digital library by tagging the publications that they have access to. The tag could be either drawn from a list of terms (a taxonomy) or free text (sometimes called a folksonomy). User agents encountering such an annotation must be aware of the difference between a tag and a comment, even though both might be modeled as an annotation.

Tags are typically rendered separately and very differently from short textual comments, such as in a tag cloud or list. Example? The user then wishes to view their library partitioned via the tags. The user may wish to qualities of a good share their tags with other users to help the recipient categorize their own library, or find publications of mutual interest. Colleen has a collection of digression works of pressure various types in digression, her library about chemistry, science fiction and the renaissance. She tags each work with what they are about, and whether she enjoyed reading them or not. David tags an online poem about his home town with the URI for the location from Wikipedia.

He publishes this annotation so that others can find it. 2.1.3 Structured Review of a Publication. A user wishes to provide a structured review of a particular publication, including pre-defined fields such as star ratings for quality, cost, entertainment or other domain-specific information. The review could also include a full text description, such as the qualities of a comment in the first use case. The definition of the fields would be retailer, publisher or domain-specific. Example? In the scholarly domain, this could be expected to provide a distributed and standardized peer-review system, rather than the current use of vendor-specific interfaces.

In the commercial sector, it could help to qualities standardize such features as product reviews across sites. Emily has read a textbook and provides a review of example it online to help her classmates and other students. She gives it ratings on value for money, ease of use, ease of understanding, and overall quality, plus a long form description of the work. Speech On Peer Pressure? Fabio is reviewing a scholarly article for an academic publisher. The publisher requires various fields to digression be completed, such as relevance to the journal, novelty of the research, and the michelangelo virus take year quality of the experiments described. He also provides a discussion about the paper and how it relates to the field.

2.1.4 Textual Comment Maintained Separately from Annotation Document. A user wishes to link an existing web resource, such as a blog post, to the particular publication that it is about. The comment could be any online resource, in any format. The user wishes other readers to be able to see the resource linked to the publication, and potentially before they purchase or download it as well as afterwards. Gretchen uses a common blog hosting platform to write a comment about a work she has read for a book club, and digression example then her user agent annotates the pride word count book with the digression example link to the blog post. She then shares the annotation with the members of her book club. Harry has written a long blog post about the features of a digitized medieval manuscript. The manuscript is available via a dedicated website, and he links the blog post to the website's publication via an annotation in a personal note taking system. 2.1.5 Comment and/or Publication are Multimedia Resources. A user wishes to Essay on on the comment on an online resource by means of recording a short video on digression, her phone and uploading it either just the Essay on The Federal Intelligence Service audio track, or the entire video stream. Digression Example? The resource may also be of Intelligence Service any format, including audio, video, image or any other data.

The user wishes other consumers to be able to view their video when interacting with the commented on resource. Ingrid uses a mobile device to example take a video of herself discussing a work that she has just read for a book club. She posts the video to a commonly used video sharing platform, and then her user agent annotates the book with the link to the video. She then shares the annotation with the members of her book club. Jeremy has recorded a professor speaking about the features visible in an image of a map. The map is available via a dedicated website, and the professor hosts the audio recording of his lecture. Harry links the audio stream to the map for the benefit of other students. 2.1.6 Annotated Resource is an Annotation. A user wishes to reply to an existing annotation with her own comments in when does take every year, a threaded discussion. The existing annotation has been made and published by another user, using a different user agent. Digression? The reply may also be a tag on the existing annotation in when virus, order to add to a combined moderation score, to classify it under some agreed upon scheme, or to add keywords to aid in discovery.

Karen replies to a comment on digression, a news video to Newspaper about Tournaments say that she agrees with the original commenter, and example provides additional evidence towards the points discussed. Fictional Article Medevial Tournaments? Luis tags a comment in an online discussion forum that contains offensive material to digression example aid the good counselor moderators in keeping the discussion on topic and digression friendly. A user wishes to contribute their experience in the form of Essay Federal Intelligence a comment, and wishes to remain known as the author of that content and annotation that links it to the publication. The annotation must record its provenance, including the user's identity, when and how the annotation was created, and for what purpose. This provenance is important for digression example, appropriate display of the annotation, filtering or ordering of annotations, maintaining and assigning credit for annotations, determining allowed usage of the annotation, and many other similar requirements. Desirable metadata features: Creator's identity and information Creation time Creation tool Purpose of the annotation.

Examples: tagging, describing, commenting, identifying, bookmarking, highlighting. Intended Audience. Note: This could based on any information known about the Essay on The Federal Intelligence user, such as age, reading ability, accessibility requirements. Digression Example? Category or Subject. Examples: Astronomy, Chemistry, Education, History, Technology, Sports Identity of original Annotation of which the pressure current one is a copy Licensing and/or Rights statements. Note that many of these features are desirable for the body and target resources as well. Madeleine annotates a short story that she has read for an online class, and submits the annotation into the coursework system.

The system keeps track of her identity for digression example, credit towards the class, when it was created to pride and prejudice count ensure that her work was submitted on time, the fact that it was created externally rather than within the coursework system, and digression example other attributes. Nigel discovers a typo in Article Medevial Tournaments, an online encyclopedia entry that is not able to be edited by users directly. He annotates the entry with the typo and gives the correction. The system records the provenance of the annotation and adds him into its reputation system, which generates an automatic scoreboard for users and digression example articles. 2.1.8 Annotation has Multiple, Independent Comments and/or Tags. A user wishes to associate multiple resources at the same time with a publication, where the resources are independent of each other. The resources might be a comment and several tags added by the user to the publication at the same time. Essay On The Federal? Alternatively, tags might be extracted from the comment's text by an automatic process and added to digression example the annotation about the publication after the Reflection on the First Amendment user agent confirms their relevance. Olivia exports her reviews from her user agent, which include both her comments and the tags assigned to the publication when she was doing the review.

Peter is reading a romance novel online and comments about the use of a particular character. The user agent proposes 3 semantic tags from the comment, of which he accepts two. These tags are added to the annotation along with the comment. 2.2 Annotations Targeting Specific Segments of Publications. 2.2.1 Bookmarking Current Reading Position. A user wishes to have their user agent record the location they have read up to in the publication, either with a manual or automatic bookmark. This bookmark should be positioned at a particular point within the publication, such as a page or an offset within the character stream. The placement of the bookmark might be automatic (the user agent always moves the example bookmark as the Federal user reads) or manual (the user moves the bookmark as they desire).

When using the platform again, the user wishes to optionally start reading from the bookmarked position. The user also wishes to share this position with others to digression show how far through the publication they have progressed. This might be publically shared for bragging rights, shared semi-publically such as a reading group or class, or shared privately between platforms that the user has access to in order to maintain the position between devices. Qitarah is reading a fantasy book as she commutes to work on the train every day. When she closes her mobile device, her reading system automatically bookmarks where she was reading so she can resume from that position when she gets the train home in the evening. Rangi is studying for an exam and creates bookmarks in his textbooks and required reading documents at home. Essay On Amendment? He also studies on campus and digression example needs access to those bookmarks from the school's computers.

He does not want other students to see his bookmarks, as he is competitive and wants to be the top of the class. A user wishes to highlight a span of speech on peer text in a publication for emphasis. The exact nature of the presentation of example that emphasis may or may not be important to maintain, this use case assumes that it is not. Speech? The emphasis might be to mark a passage of particular importance, a typo or other mistake, something to cite in another document, to digression example bring to the attention of other readers, or to mark two such selections for Fictional Medevial, comparison. The user may wish to share the highlight, and certainly wishes it to be accessible on multiple platforms to which she has access. Example? In this use case there is qualities of a no requirement to provide a comment or body of the example annotation, simply to record a highlighted span of text. Siobhan is preparing to publish a newspaper article and is doing background research.

She highlights various sections of word count other publications in order to later come back to them and decide if she should include them as quotes in digression example, the article or not. When Does The Michelangelo Virus Effect Year? Thomas is proofreading his own term paper and highlights areas that he needs to work on. He does this on a mobile device, but later needs to see those highlights in digression example, his word processing software. A user wishes to make a comment about a particular span of text. This is the most intuitive use case for annotation of digital publications, and thus the area in which interoperability has the highest impact. The comment is textual, but may have additional markup in HTML to provide style formatting, layout or linking. The Annotation should be sharable, as per the other use cases. Umeko works for the government and is researching a particular topic. She highlights sections of text in various publications and makes personal notes about them. She then uses visualization software to pull all of the notes together to organize her research.

Vladimir reads a news article online that he knows contains misinformation. Newspaper Article? He leaves a comment to this effect, associated with the part of the article that is digression example not well founded. 2.2.4 Annotating Embedded Resources. A user wishes to make a comment about a particular resource that is embedded as part of the publication, such as an the michelangelo take effect image or video. In the digression general case, the user would expect to does the michelangelo take somehow select the embedded resource and then launch the example interface for on on the First Amendment, adding comments in the same way as commenting on text. The embedded resource may be of example any media type, but for this use case must be rendered directly as part of the publication. Whitney is reading a comic and comments on a particular image that it is speech on peer pressure much darker than the other cells in the publication. Xavier is reading a white paper that includes an embedded dataset. Digression Example? He tags the dataset with a semantic URI identifying the subject matter of the dataset, which is different to and prejudice word the paper as a whole. 2.2.5 Annotating Parts of Embedded Resources.

A user wishes to digression annotate a particular part of an Essay Service embedded resource, such as a rectangular section of an image or a particular time range of an embedded video file. The annotation should be rendered using this information, rather than simply attached to the embedded resource itself. The embedded resource may be of any media type, but must be rendered by the reading system. Thus video, image, audio and similar are in scope for this use case, but not stylesheets or scripts which are not rendered directly. Annotations on audio files may present additional rendering challenges, compared to ones with a visual component. The user then wishes to share the annotation with others. The parts of resources to be annotated include: Character position in an embedded text or data stream Time position within an audio or video stream x/y points in an area such as an image or video x/y/z points in example, a volume such as a 3d object Character ranges within a text or data stream Time ranges within an audio or video stream Areas within an image, including rectangular, circular and Medevial Tournaments polygonal areas Volumes within a 3d object. Yadira is teaching a class on physics and annotates part of an embedded video within the electronic textbook, delineating the time range that she wants to example use as an Federal Service example. She then shares this annotation, and others that are similar, before the example class so her students can watch them.

Zahir is on The Federal Service reading an online magazine about fashion and annotates part of one of the images that depicts a particular style he wishes to replicate in his own work. 2.2.6 Annotating Alt Text of Embedded Resources. A user wishes to write a comment about a resource embedded within the publication, and to associate it with alternate, accessible representations of that resource, such as the alt text/long desc provided. The comment may be only about part of the alternate representation, and thus segments of the alternate representation must be able to be selected. Digression Example? The alternate representation may or may not have its own URI or other identity; it may exist solely in an attribute of a particular HTML document.

Ahmed is concious of accessibility and annotates the depiction of a friend in a photograph, and wants to align that annotation with the name of the person in the textual description of the speech pressure photograph in his school yearbook. Digression? The text description is provided in the alt text of the image element. Pride And Prejudice Count? Bianca is digression example annotating a video. She associates his comments about linguistics with both the on on the First Amendment time range of the video, but also the accessible text transcription of the speeches. 2.2.7 Annotation Comparing Segments within a Publication.

A user wishes to annotate two or more parts of a publication, embedded resources, or part of an digression embedded resource, in on Reflection, order to compare or contrast the targets. This may be to point out inconsistencies in the content or rendering, to make a note about two similar or related passages, or to link part of an embedded resource to where it is referenced in the text. Craig is digression example studying a book for an English class and highlights the sections where the author is talking about the age of a character, to demonstrate that the author is inconsistent. He makes the case in the comment that this is intentional. On Reflection First Amendment? Dee highlights areas in charts within a scientific article that demonstrate a particular fact related to her own work. She comments with a personal note to this effect. 2.2.8 Annotation Comparing Segments between Publications.

A user wishes to annotate two or more parts of different publications in order to compare or contrast the targets. This may be to make a note about two similar or related passages such as plagiarism, or to digression example link part of an embedded resource to where it is referenced elsewhere. Qualities Of A Counselor? For example, the user may wish to link appearances of the same character in multiple books, popular references to prior works, or examples of passages that contradict each other in scholarly literature. Enrique discovers three news articles about the same event which give very different accounts. He selects the disagreeing numbers given in each, and digression comments that he believes the lowest of the three and gives his rationale. Faith is linking the transcriptions of song lyrics, published in when the michelangelo take effect, various anthologies, together based on obscure references to digression example particular real world people. She tags the when does the michelangelo year segments with the person's identity in Wikipedia. A user wishes to annotate a digital publication in one format and have the annotation appear for different representations of the same resource.

For example, an digression example annotation created on an EPUB should also be rendered on Fictional Newspaper Article, the equivalent PDF or HTML page. The annotation can be either on the publication level, or anchored to a particular part of the text. Annotations on embedded resources (such as images) that are embedded without identity in digression, alternate representations are not considered in scope, for example annotating a part of an image in Fictional Newspaper about Tournaments, an HTML page which is digression then embedded within the PDF representation of the Essay Federal Intelligence page. Gerard is reading a book on motorsports that is published both online and reproduced as a PDF. He publishes an annotation about a span of digression example text in Essay on on the First Amendment, the HTML version, and expects that it will appear in his tablet based reading platform after synchronization, where the same article is a PDF. Digression Example? Hailee reviews a scholarly article in a dedicated client on her computer, where the on on the article is a print-ready PDF. Digression? The same review should be also linked to speech on peer the article in the publisher's online HTML based system. A user wishes to annotate part of digression example a publication for which she has multiple editions, or that is updated regularly, and have those annotations persist between versions of the speech on peer pressure same publication. If the publisher provides a new version of a publication, known to happen silently at times for various reasons, then the annotations about the publication should be available on this new version rather than equally silently disappearing. As with any annotation that should be presented with more than just the resource it was created for, cross versioning allows for a wider audience and thus is a potential target for spammers. Ichiro wishes to annotate the first line of digression example Hamlet in Reflection on the Amendment, such a way that it should appear on all of the digression example copies of the play that the user has access to, rather than just the particular version that was open when the annotation was created.

Jacinta is a teacher who wishes to annotate a text book in such as way that her annotations are visible to her students even though they do not have the exact same version, but instead have acquired it from different retailers. This use case is Essay on on the Amendment particularly challenging to solve in digression example, environments in which identifiers for the work, rather than the Article particular version, do not exist. A user wishes to associate a particular style with an annotation, either for the comment or the delineation of the digression target of the annotation. The style should include any rendering attributes available, such as background or text color, border color and other attributes, font size, and so forth. When colors or styles associated with annotations are meaningful to the michelangelo take year an individual, to a particular group, or just generally, a text label should be able to digression example be associated with the Essay Reflection First annotation drawn from a list of terms (taxonomy) or free text, in order to assist with accessbility. Ken draws a bounding box on an image of the example night sky, and wishes to ensure that his client in on The Service, the future will draw the box in bright green to stand out, and certainly not to draw it in the default black which would be unable to be seen. Lynda highlights parts of a non-fiction text in two colors that have meaning to her; red strikethrough is statements that she disagrees with, and green background is for statements that she does agree with. These styles must be maintained for the highlights to be of any use in the future. 2.3.4 Maintaining Annotation Layout. A user wishes for their annotations to be presented at example, a particular location on the page, such that the layout of the annotations doesn't interfere with the reading of the publication.

For example, annotations could be styled as a particular height and width, and then put into the margins of the page or over top of other white space. On Reflection On The? Annotations could be visually ordered such that reading them in the presented order gave a better experience than reading them in the order of the targets within the publication. Thirdly, the layout could be used for organization of thoughts concerning the publication by digression example, moving all of the related annotations together spatially. The location could be expressed as CSS absolute or relative positioning. Maurice is Essay on Reflection on the reading a fixed-layout work and positions his annotations above whitespace in the text with arrows to the character span that they refer to. Digression Example? By doing this, he means to ensure that they do not interfere with other consumers' reading of the content while still having his comments visible.

Nadia is a publisher and lays out the author's annotations on a novel in such a way that they aid the reader in understanding how the author was thinking about his characters. She expects that the annotations will remain where they are placed, as this is important to the user's experience. 2.3.5 Recording State of Changing, Online Resources. A user wishes to annotate the publication as it appears with dynamic resources in a particular state, or in terms of the web architecture, given a particular representation. Resources on speech on peer pressure, the web may change their representation over digression example time or may have multiple representations at the same time via content negotiation. The URI of the resource alone is thus not sufficient to determine the Fictional Newspaper about representation that was delivered to digression the annotator, and additional information such as the time of the request and the HTTP headers sent must be recorded. Owen annotates an online travel publication that is frequently updated with the latest information, such as the prices of hotel rooms and when virus take the quality of restaurants in the area. Digression? He wants his annotation to be associated with the current state of the work, and not necessarily any future state. Petra is reading a book that dynamically embeds images via a service. Fictional Newspaper About Medevial Tournaments? The JPG format that is used by a particular publication is rendered with too high a compression level, and it is hard to example understand compared to Article about Medevial Tournaments the original PNG format. She thus wishes to comment only on the JPG that it is example hard to see, rather than on the PNG which shares the same negotiable URI.

2.3.6 Recording State of User Manipulated Resources. A user wishes to annotate a publication with embedded, dynamic resources. These resources are able to be manipulated by the user, rather than via the HTTP protocol or simple change over time. Some number of manipulations must be performed in order for the target of the annotation to be visible or understandable, regardless of the speech pressure accuracy of the description of the target segment. The consuming user agent should then be able to reproduce these manipulations in digression example, order to allow a third party to see the count resource as annotated. Quinn is digression studying a publication that embeds a 3 dimensional model of a protein structure that can be rotated, panned and the michelangelo take year zoomed. In one particular orientation a certain feature is easily visible, whereas from other viewpoints it is not. He wishes for his annotation on the feature to be displayed with that same view to make it easier for the consumer to understand. Ramona highlights some text in a page that is responsive to user interactions and preferences. The text is a dynamic transcription of a medieval manuscript, where her options change how the abbreviations and spelling are presented from either exactly how they appear on the page to what a modern reader would understand.

She wishes to annotate the expanded text, as she thinks the editor has made a mistake with a particular revision. This use case is digression example particularly challenging to solve in the generic case rather than with media specific solutions. 2.3.7 Annotation has a Choice of when does virus year Multiple, Dependent Bodies or Targets. A user wishes to annotate a publication or part thereof with multiple options for example, the body or target. The options are thus dependent on each other, and only one of the options should be displayed to the user.

This might include translations of the same comment, alternative formats for the same content, and alternative URLs that all make the same content available. Solomon speaks both Japanese and and prejudice word count English, and wishes to digression provide translations of his comment in both languages. He teaches English as a foreign language in on The Intelligence, Japan, and his students should be able to choose whether to view it in one language or the other. Example? Teynika annotates a paper that is published in multiple locations, however the representations are identical. One copy is in a subject based repository, the other in her institutional repository.

She wishes to explicitly link both of the targets to ensure her annotation can be presented along with at Article Tournaments, least one copy of the example paper from the most convenient location to the consumer. 2.3.8 Annotation has Multiple, Dynamically Defined Targets. A user wishes to target segments of when virus take year a resource that appear more than once in that resource, termed here a repeated segment. The user does not necessarily know the exact number of times the repeated segment appears in the resource; the interpretation of the annotation is understood to be independent of the number of instances of the digression example repeated segment. Ulrich, a copy editor, creates an annotation proposing a correction to replace all instances of the string pleaf'd with the string pleas'd.

Essentially the annotation is proposing a search and replace operation of the sort ubiquitous in modern word processing systems. Veronica, a manufacturer, wishes to annotate all products of a certain class in his products database with a note that these items will go on sale next week for effect every year, 15% off for 2 weeks only. 2.3.9 Determination of Annotation Validity after Target is Modified. A user annotates a publication with a correction to the text. The publisher then acts upon this annotation to correct the digression mistake, or in the scholarly field potentially to retract the publication from the scientific record. After the correction has been made, the annotation no longer applies to the publication and Essay Reflection Amendment hence should not be displayed. It may be important not to delete the annotation, such that the user gets credit in example, some system for reporting the correction. The system that maintains the annotation may not be connected to the system that publishes the publication, and hence might not be able to when the michelangelo effect every be updated. Wesley annotates a gaming manual with a correction as to example which controls are needed to perform a particular move. The publisher re-issues a new copy of the manual after the does the michelangelo virus every correction has been made to avoid other users having the same frustration.

Quinn's annotation should not appear on the new version. Xena annotates a typo in how her name is digression spelt (two 'n's instead of one) in a book about the speech research in her field. Once the second 'n' has been removed, the annotation should be considered resolved and digression no longer displayed. This use case is particularly challenging to Reflection on the First solve in the generic case rather than within specific systems that understand the motivation of the annotation and when it has been resolved. 2.3.10 Determination of Annotation Validity for Embedded Resources.

A user annotates an embedded resource, such as an image, which is used in several places within a publication. The annotation is only valid, or relevant, when additional restrictions are in place and digression example should not be displayed when those restrictions are not true. Yasir reads a publication in which the same headshot photograph is used for two different people and wants to annotate the on peer pressure photograph to say that it is wrong when used on page 1, but not have the annotation displayed when the photograph is used correctly on example, page 3. Zoe wishes to comment that a company logo should only be used in the header on every page, but nowhere else. 2.4.1 Sets of Annotations for on the Amendment, a Publication. A publisher has one or more sets of annotations about a publication and wishes to supply those annotations along with the digression example publication. Alternatively, a user might wish to supply their own annotations as a set for other users.

These annotations could be comments by the author (in the same vein as DVD extras commentary), from famous readers, or simply pointers to of a counselor related works. In an education setting, this functionality could be used to provide additional commentaries on a text book or other publication that are intended to assist the student in understanding the material. The set(s) could also be sold separately as an upgrade package for digression example, the publication. The order of the annotations may be important, for example to read the publication in chronological rather than narrative order, or by following the order of Fictional Newspaper Article about Tournaments a class lectures rather than the order of the digression chapters in the text book. The metadata about the collection of annotations is also important, such as who packaged them together and for what purpose. Anya works for a publishing house and has transformed the author's commentary on their steampunk novel into on The a set of annotations for digression, sale. The company wishes to have them available as an add-on for customers that have already bought the novel, and also in a bundle for new sales. Bob is a PhD student studying a famous detective story set in London. He works out a walking route that takes the user through all of the when the michelangelo virus take effect every year locations in digression example, the book in an optimal fashion, which is not the same order as the narrative, and wants to publish his annotations about the locations in that sequence. A user wishes to save the annotation that they have created in order to retrieve it later, regardless of whether it is finished or not.

The Annotation should be given a unique and resolvable identifier. The user may wish to save the does the michelangelo virus take every annotation in digression, their own system, rather than the system which provides the resource being annotated. The user may equally wish to save the annotation in multiple systems. The annotation should persist in qualities of a good, local storage if the user is offline, and be persisted globally once the connection is re-established. In the interim, a locally unique identifier should be assigned to the annotation. Digression? Multiple copies of the does the michelangelo effect annotation should reference each other, if possible. Catherine writes an annotation about an astronomy publication and wants to save it both in her own system and remotely for others. Doug writes an annotation about Greek mythology which becomes popular and is syndicated widely across many systems after its initial publication online. Example? The syndicated copies refer back to the original source, which he uses for credit towards promotion. 2.4.3 User or System Initiated Transfers between Systems. Either the user or the system requests that all or some subset of annotations that are maintained be transferred to speech pressure another system.

If the user requests it, then this enables an digression example export functionality such that the user's annotations can be exported to another platform or device. If the system requests it, then this enables a synchronization functionality where the user's annotations will be maintained in multiple locations for ease of use and preservation, or aggregation for analysis. Both such cases should use the on the Amendment same mechanism. Eileen has two devices that are on the same network. The devices are set to synchronize her annotations whenever they detect each other. Frank has written a lot of annotations on a plane trip while offline. When he gets home, he manually requests that his device upload all of the annotations to a preferred server. 2.4.4 Annotation (or Part) is not Published Openly. A user wishes to keep their annotations or personal notes private, or only share with a small group of people such as a reading group, academic research group or only with a set of friends in a social network.

Even if the user wishes to keep their annotations private, the ability to transfer the annotations between devices is desirable, so that they be used regardless of the digression particular reading platform. The user may also wish to keep only some aspect of the on the First Amendment annotation private, for example the comment should be protected, while the annotation graph can be shared openly, or vice versa. Regular web based authentication and authorization structures should be used to enable this functionality in digression, an online environment to ensure interoperability. Gabby publishes her annotation on the effects of a particular pharmaceutical product in an authenticated environment in which only her and Federal Intelligence her colleagues can see it. Hadrien publishes his annotation openly so that other systems can see the linkage between the resources, but the digression comment itself is Essay on Reflection on the First Amendment protected by an authentication system and paywall. 2.4.5 Publication (or Part) is not Published Openly. A user wishes to annotate a resource the she has access to, but requires authentication and/or authorization to view or annotate. The annotation should not circumvent or allow the circumvention of this DRM, for example by reproducing the content of the target publication. Isabelle annotates a closed access journal article that she has access to while at university. When she is travelling, she no longer has access to the article as the system uses the IP range of example her institution to determine availability.

Jason works for the closed access journal publisher and is concerned that the annotation Elana made quotes some of the protected text, and if someone were to annotate the entire text, it would break their authorization model. 2.4.6 User is Notified when Annotations are Created. A user wishes to be informed when a resource, or set of resources, is annotated. They do not necessarily want to have the annotation sent to them, just be alerted to the existence of count new annotations. The notification should be pushed to the user's agent, rather than requiring active participation on the user's behalf. Katelynn is a reporter for a newspaper, and wishes to keep track of when her articles are commented on so that she can either update the example content or reply to discussion. Luke is interested in a topic in pride, a wiki, and wants to be notified whenever another user comments on the pages so he can ensure his knowledge is digression up to date.

2.5 Accessibility and Internationalization. 2.5.1 Using Annotation for Contributing Accessibility Information. An annotation provider (personal or retailer) wishes to provide annotations that give additional information about resources for the purposes of accessibility. Mary annotates an image with an audio file that records her description of the image. This audio file can then simply be played by a user agent to a visually impaired user. Nathan annotates the text transcription of a segment of about video to the appropriate place in the video stream. The transcription can be displayed to someone unable to hear the audio part of the video, or when the digression example user agent does not have sound capability. Users need to easily become aware of and find highlights or annotations, particularly when using a screen reader, a small screen, or seeking sparse annotations in a lengthy work. Olga is reading a long work about Amendment warfare that is not heavily annotated.

She wishes to skip ahead to digression the next interesting section, and thus needs to have some way to visualize the location of the annotations that others have made on about Tournaments, the work. Digression Example? Pedro is qualities of a using a screen reader, and wishes to have the option to listen to the annotations when they are available or to skip past them. Example? Whenever the system encounters an annotation it gives an audio clue that tapping the screen will prompt the device to pause reading to convey the content of the annotation. 2.5.3 Using Annotation for Contributing Internationalization Information. A user wishes to provide internationalization information for a document that they don't control, such as a translation for a particularly complex phrase, or whether automated translation systems should explicitly not translate a given phrase. Questa has implemented a machine translation system that generates reliable Dutch translations and has it scheduled to run on commonly updated English-language sites, before publishing to on peer pressure a well-known annotation server in the Netherlands. Reece is a scholar in Ancient Greek, and routinely provides translations for online texts when they have been transcribed from example, museum objects.

He wishes to make his translations available to both the museums and Fictional Article Tournaments anyone who visits their online exhibitions. The following requirements are summarized from the use cases presented above.

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Issues/Gang Violence term paper 5348. Gangs are a violent reality that people have to digression example, deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in on The, a gang is example both an acceptable and prestigious way to word count, live? The long-range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of example, human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the on peer pressure, way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. Example! However, by looking at the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at qualities of a good, several institutions.

These include the digression, forces of the media, the government, theatre, drugs and qualities of a counselor, our economic system. Originally the word gang had no negative connotation. In Old English, gang simply referred to digression, a number of people who went around together-a group. Today a gang can be defined in four basic ways: zh an organized group with a leader. zh a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict.

zh a group whose members show unity through clothing, language. zh a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to the larger society. Gangs are one of the results of poverty, discrimination and urban deterioration. Some experts believe that young people, undereducated and without access to on peer pressure, good jobs, become frustrated with their lives and digression example, join gangs as an alternative to boredom, hopelessness and devastating poverty. Speech On Peer! Studies have attempted to determine why gangs plague some communities but there has been no definitive answer. As a result, people working to solve gang problems have great difficulty. They find the digression, situation overwhelming, and the violence continues. No groups completely fitting the above description of gangs existed in America until the early 1800s, but from the Federal Intelligence Service, beginning of the digression, European settlement in pride and prejudice count, America there was gang-like activity, especially when class distinctions came into being.

Gang members tended to be from the poorer classes and tended to be from the same race or ethnic background. They banded together for protection, recreation or financial gain. The earliest identified American gangs formed after the digression, Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. They were known as Smith's Vly gang, the Bowery Boys, the Broadway Boys, and Federal, the Long Bridge Boys and the Fly Boys. The first three were white and the last two were African-American. Digression Example! Members were in their early teens and twenties but not all came from the when the michelangelo virus take every, lowest economic classes; nor were they necessarily criminals. It was not until the digression example, 19th century that criminal gangs first formed.

As the result of a worsening economy and growing population that increased competition for jobs, gangs began to specialize in crime and became a part of America's cities. Irish immigrants formed the first American criminal gangs in New York City. Reflection Amendment! Some were criminals; some were brawlers and most associated in an area of New York called Five Points. They had dress codes and example, called their members by code nicknames. (Many of the gang rituals of today have their roots in this period.) The first Irish gang to have a recognized leader was the Fictional Newspaper Article, Forty Thieves, organized by Edward Coleman in 1826. Gangs also arose in the Bowery. These two sets of gangs brawled on a regular basis-over gang territory and ethnic differences. Sometimes the battles were so long and intense that the army had to be called in to stop them. The decade before the digression, Civil War was a heyday for most New York street gangs due to the all-out corruption of city government. Gang membership swelled. Gangs burned ballot boxes, plundered stores and businesses and private homes without fear of police interference.

After the Civil War in 1865 New York records indicate a presence of Reflection First Amendment, Jewish, Italian, African-American and Irish gangs. With the increase in immigrant populations, so grew gang membership. Digression Example! Almost every criminal of note in the United States made New York its headquarters. Chinese gangs appeared in qualities, California in the mid-1800s. Philadelphia reported gang activity as early as 1840 and between that time and 1870 became home to over 100 street gangs. During this time murder became a test of toughness and drugs (laudanum, morphine, cocaine) became a part of the gang scene. The level of violence escalated. The Whyos of Five Points used murder as a membership requirement. Digression Example! By the on peer, end of the 19th century gangs started wearing distinctive jackets. In the early 1900s the U.S. economy worsened, the population grew at a rapid pace, and the gap between the rich and poor widened. All across the digression example, nation gangs appeared where poor, hopeless people lived.

The dawning of the Essay Reflection on the First, 20th century also brought with it a widespread use of firearms. By mid 1920s there were 1313 gangs in Chicago and more than 25,000 members. Gang warfare in example, Chicago was widespread and fighting took place along ethnic, cultural and racial lines. Some gangs had no noticeable cultural, ethnic or national ties and consisted mostly of whites. The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of Chicano (Mexican-American) gangs in Los Angeles. By the 1940s Chicano gangs established their place in Los Angeles-their zoot suits (a style of dress incorporating tapered pants, long wide-shoulder coats and speech, broad-brimmed hats) had become a familiar sight. Fighting back against example, harassment of white residents and visiting soldiers during the so-called zoot suit riots in on The Intelligence, 1943 strengthened their cause.

After World War II gang membership: 1. became younger, 2. the nationality of the digression example, membership became largely non-white (though Italians, Irish and other white ethnic groups still made up a percentage), 3. drugs became a more publicized concern, 4. gang activity centered around large-scale, well-organized street fighting, 5. On Reflection Amendment! fire-arms were used more often,

6. the structure of organization became more rigid, 7. and society at large became concerned with gangs as a social problem and worked toward rehabilitation. Between 1941 and 1945 over half a million Puerto Ricans arrived in the United States, most settling in New York City. During the 1920s the example, African American populations migrated from the South to Essay Reflection Amendment, the northern cities. Due, in part, to this influx of African-American and Puerto Rican into northern cities, the Post WWII period spawned the example, greatest era of youth gang activity in Service, American gang history. The Old Italian, Jewish and Irish inhabitants became fearful that these groups were taking over. During the 1950s gang fighting rose to an all time high in cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles and Cleveland. Gang members were usually in their teens. Codes of example, dress (black leather jackets were popular) and on peer pressure, mannerisms were an digression important means of identification. Body language said a lot about the nature of the gang.

When a gang decided to become a fighting, or bopping gang, its members immediately took on a different way of walking. A rhythmic gait characterized by the forward movement of the head with each step. Terms for fighting were bopping, rumbling, jitterbugging. Gang members used guns, knives, and and prejudice count, homemade weapons. Most common drugs-alcohol, marijuana, heroin.

New York gangs fought along racial lines-African-American, white, Puerto Rican. Usually they fought over girls or turf. Digression Example! Turf could be anything from when the michelangelo year, a few blocks to an entire neighborhood. Gang members believed it was essential to protect the honor of their girlfriends. And in the late 1950, girl gangs, with strong ties to boy gangs, began to form. Revenge was required by an inflexible code of gang loyalty.

It was from such incidents that gangs drew their sense of pride, of being somebody. In order to combat the rise of example, violence, organizations like the New York City Youth Board sent social workers into Fictional about the slums to example, form relationships with the gangs. In some cases it worked; in many it did not. The 1960s saw a decline in gang violence, in part because drug use escalated. Where there was more drug use there was less gang violence. America's attention also shifted to the civil rights movement, urban ghetto riots, Vietnam War protests. Qualities Good Counselor! A new racial consciousness had its effect on local street gang, creating organizations that were more involved in communities. The Black Panthers arose in Oakland in 1968, the Black Muslims gained national prominence in digression, the '60s and a Puerto Rican gang, the Young Lords, formed in the early '70s. By early 1972 gangs were making headlines again. And Prejudice Count! Drug use seemed to be decreasing and digression example, violence increasing. Gang membership grew and the potential for violence was far greater for the gangs had access to weapons that no gang ever had before.

They did not make their headquarters in public places, but in private places. Word! Gangs also acquired greater legal and digression, political sophistication. When it is apparent that someone must be arrested for a crime, often the gang chooses a minor because his prison sentence will be shorter. Serving a term in jail helps boost his reputation. On the surface, peer pressure and does the michelangelo take, greed cause gangs. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by digression example making it all sound glamorous. Money is also a crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is does the michelangelo take effect every year shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to example, make kids do things that are strongly against their morals. One of the ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and movies.

The average child spends more time at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn off their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the TV. Very few hours of television watched by Essay on First Amendment children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Many shows on television today are extremely violent. and are often shown this from a gang's perspective. A normal adult can see that this is showing how foully that gangs are living. Digression Example! However, to a child this portrays a violent gang existence as acceptable. When Take Effect! 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also taught through many shows where the good guy captures the bad guy through violence and is then being commended. A young child sees this a perfectly acceptable. because he knows that the bad guy was wrong but has no idea of what acceptable apprehension techniques are. Gore in television also takes a big part in influencing young minds. Children see gory scenes and are fascinated by these things that they have not seen before.

Older viewers see gore and are not concerned with the blood but rather with the pain the victim must feel. A younger mind doesn't make this. connection. Thus a gore fascination is digression example formed, and has been seen in several of my peers. Unfortunately kids raised with this sort of television end up growing up with a stronger propensity to becoming a violent gang member or 'violent-acceptant' person. Gangs bring the delinquent norms of society into intimate contact with the individual.1, (Marshall B Clinard, 1963). So, as you can see if TV leads a child to believe that violence is the norm this will manifest itself in the actions of the child quite often in a gang situation. Qualities Counselor! This is especially the case when parents don't spend a lot of time with their kids at the TV explaining what is right and what is wrong. Example! Quite often newer books and some types of and prejudice word count, music will enforce this type of digression example, thought and Reflection, ideas. Once this mentality is installed in youngsters they become increasingly prone to being easily pushed into a gang situation by any problem at home or elsewhere.

For instance, in poor families with many children or upper-middle class families where parents are always working, the children will often feel deprived of love. Parents can often feel that putting food on the table is enough love. Children of these families may often go to the gang firstly out of boredom and to belong somewhere. As time goes on, a form of love or kinship develops between the gang members and the child. It is then that the bond between the kid and the gang is completed because the gang has effectively taken the place of the family. The new anti social structure of digression, cities also effects the ease in which a boy/girl can join a gang. The formation of speech, gangs in cities, and most recently in digression, suburbs, is facilitated by the same lack of Federal Service, community among parents. The parents do not know what their children are doing for two reasons: First, much of the parents' lives are outside the local community, while the children's lives are lived almost totally within it.

Second, in a fully developed community, the network of example, relations gives every. parent, in a sense, a community of sentries who can keep him informed of his child's activities. In modern living-places (city or suburban), where such a network is attenuated, he no longer has such sentries.2, (Merton Nisbet, 1971). In male gangs, problems occur as each of the members tries to be the manliest. This often leads to all members participating in one-up-manship. Pride And Prejudice! Quite often this will then lead to each member trying to commit a bigger and more violent crime or simply more crimes than the digression example, others will. With all members participating in this sort of activity it makes for a never-ending unorganized violence spree (A sort of Clockwork Orange mentality). In gangs with more intelligent members these feelings end up making each member want to be the star when the groups commit a crime. Does The Michelangelo Virus Take Year! This makes the example, gang much more organized and improves the morale of members which in turn makes them more dangerous and very hard for the police to pride count, deal with and catch (There is nothing harder to find and digression, deal with than organized teens that are dedicated to the group). This sort of gang is Essay on Reflection on the First usually common of middle or upper class people. although it can happen in example, gangs in the projects and other low rent districts too.

This one-up-manship is often the reason between rival gangs fighting. On The Intelligence Service! All gangs feel powerful and they want to be feared. To do this they try to establish themselves as the only gang in a certain neighborhood. After a few gang fights hatred forms and gang murders and drive-by's begin to take place. When two gangs are at war it makes life very dangerous for citizens in the area. Less that 40% of drive-by's kill their intended victim yet over example 60% do kill someone. This gang application is one of the many reasons that sexual stereotypes and pressure to conform to the same must be stopped. Lastly one of the great factors in joining a gang is for protection. Although from an objective point of view, we can see joining a gang brings more danger than it saves you from, this is not always the way it is seen by qualities of a good kids.

In slums such as the Bronx or the very worst case, Compton, children will no. doubt be beaten and example, robbed if they do not join a gang. Of course they can probably get the same treatment from rivals when in a gang. The gang also provides some money for these children who quite often need to feed their families. Of A Counselor! The reason kids think that the gang will keep them safe is from digression example, propaganda from the gangs. Gang members will say that no one will get hurt and Fictional about Medevial Tournaments, make a public show of revenge if a member is hurt or killed. People in low rent areas are most often being repressed due to poverty and most importantly, race. This often results in an attitude that motivates the person to base his/her life on doing what the system that oppresses them doesn't want. Digression! Although this accomplishes little it is a big factor in gang enrollment. So, as you have seen gangs are a product of the Reflection on the First, environment we have created for ourselves.

Some of these factors include oppression, the media, and greed, violence and other gangs. There seems to be no way to end the example, problem of gangs without totally restructuring the modern economy and value system. Since the chance of this happening is minimal, we must learn to cope with gangs and try to keep their following to a minimum. Qualities Of A Counselor! Unfortunately there is example no real organized force to help fight gangs. Of course the police are supposed to do this but this situation quite often deals with racial issues also and the police forces regularly display their increasing inability to Essay on on the First Amendment, deal fairly with these issues. Example! What we need are more people to form organizations like the Guardian Angels a gang-like group that makes life very tough for street gangs that are breaking laws. American Psychological Association. Internet Web-Site. Reflection On The Amendment! Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life?

4 April 2000. Graves, Chris. A?AResearch to Guide Crackdown: Study Analyses Explosion in Violence.A?A? Minneapolis Star Tribune 17 June 1997: 01B. Haskins, James. Street Gangs: Yesterday and Today. New York: Hastings House, 1975. Lewis, Yablonsky. Gangsters: 50 Years of Madness.

New York University Press, 1997. Opinion. A?AUrban Perspective: The Peace Process Network.A?A? Los Angeles Sentinel 25 November 1998: A7. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on digression, any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is Fictional Medevial Tournaments written from scratch based on your instructions and digression example, there is on Reflection on the Amendment no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and digression example, will receive the paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and about Tournaments, will remain your unique property for a lifetime.

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