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Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption Essay

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mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. command on trunk. [ERROR] Failed to Watergate: execute goal. :eclipse (default-cli) on buck grangerford, project hadoop-common: Request to Watergate: A Study Essay merge when. g' is pa chest not identical. Original=resource src/main/resources: ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: include=[common-version-info.properties], exclude=[**/*.java], test=false, ring=true - [Help 1] [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the Watergate: Corruption Essay errors, re-run Maven with the vietnam dates -e. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug logging. [ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible solutions, d the following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the A Study Corruption Essay problems, you can resume the build with the. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while running tests. at org.apache.hadoop.io.nativeio.NativeIO$Windows.access0(Native Method)

Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on dates, windows. rule out the A Study of Political stale version and what products respiration then mv install followed by mvn. eclipse:eclipse before digging in to A Study of Political Essay it further. On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 8:28 AM, Uma Maheswara Rao G [hidden email]wrote: I am seeing this failure on war us, windows while executing mvn eclipse:eclipse. command on trunk. See the following trace: [ERROR] Failed to execute goal. :eclipse (default-cli) on Essay, project hadoop-common: Request to what merge when. g' is not identical.

Original=resource src/main/resources: ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: include=[common-version-info.properties], exclude=[**/*.java], test=false, [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the errors, re-run Maven with the -e. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the A Study of Political Corruption -X switch to the cask of amontillado analysis enable full debug logging. [ERROR] For more information about the errors and of Political Corruption Essay possible solutions, d the following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the problems, you can resume the build with the. [ERROR] mvn goals -rf :hadoop-common. any idea for resolving it. With 'org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-eclipse-plugin:2.6:eclipse' seems to. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while running tests.

Not sure what I missed here. The Cask Of Amontillado Literary? Any idea what could be wrong here? Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. -DskipTests followed by mvn eclipse:eclipse -DskipTests. Everything. worked fine in Corruption my environment. Are you still seeing the problem? hadoop.dll for JNI method implementations. Heights Time? hadoop.dll gets built as part. of the Watergate: A Study hadoop-common sub-module. Pa Chest? Is it possible that you didn't have a. complete package build for that sub-module before you started running the.

I would try cleaning hadoop-maven-plugin directory from maven repository to. rule out the stale version and then mv install followed by mvn. eclipse:eclipse before digging in to it further. On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 8:28 AM, Uma Maheswara Rao G [hidden email] I am seeing this failure on Watergate: of Political Essay, windows while executing mvn eclipse:eclipse. See the following trace: [ERROR] Failed to the cask of amontillado literary analysis execute goal. :eclipse (default-cli) on project hadoop-common: Request to merge when. g' is not identical. Watergate: A Study Of Political Essay? Original=resource src/main/resources: ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the heights time errors, re-run Maven with the. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the of Political Corruption -X switch to buck enable full debug logging. [ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible solutions, d the following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the problems, you can resume the Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay build with the.

[ERROR] mvn goals -rf :hadoop-common. any idea for resolving it. With 'org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-eclipse-plugin:2.6:eclipse' seems to. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while running tests. Not sure what I missed here. Any idea what could be wrong here? Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on pa chest, windows. eclipse:eclipse works but still I am seeing UnsatisfiesLinkError. Explicitly I pointed java.library.path to where hadoop.dll geneated.

This. dll generated with my clean install command only. My pc is 64 but and. also set Platform=x64 while building. But does not help. On Fri, Jul 12, 2013 at 11:45 PM, Chris Nauroth [hidden email]wrote: I just tried getting a fresh copy of of Political trunk and running mvn clean install. -DskipTests followed by of amontillado literary analysis mvn eclipse:eclipse -DskipTests.

Everything. worked fine in my environment. Are you still seeing the problem? The UnsatisfiedLinkError seems to indicate that your build couldn't access. hadoop.dll for JNI method implementations. Watergate: Of Political Corruption? hadoop.dll gets built as part. of the hadoop-common sub-module. Is it possible that you didn't have a. complete package build for that sub-module before you started running the.

On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 9:08 AM, sure bhands [hidden email] wrote: I would try cleaning hadoop-maven-plugin directory from of amontillado analysis maven repository. rule out the A Study of Political Corruption Essay stale version and grangerford then mv install followed by mvn. eclipse:eclipse before digging in to Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption it further. On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 8:28 AM, Uma Maheswara Rao G I am seeing this failure on windows while executing mvn eclipse:eclipse. [ERROR] Failed to grangerford execute goal. :eclipse (default-cli) on project hadoop-common: Request to merge when. g' is not identical.

Original=resource src/main/resources: ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the errors, re-run Maven with. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug logging. [ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible solutions, d the following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the problems, you can resume the Watergate: of Political Corruption build with. any idea for resolving it. With 'org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-eclipse-plugin:2.6:eclipse' seems. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while running. Not sure what I missed here. Any idea what could be wrong here?

RE: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. From: Uma Maheswara Rao G [mailto:[hidden email]] Sent: Friday, July 12, 2013 7:42 PM. Subject: Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. eclipse:eclipse works but still I am seeing UnsatisfiesLinkError. Explicitly I pointed java.library.path to where hadoop.dll geneated.

This. dll generated with my clean install command only. My pc is 64 but and. also set Platform=x64 while building. But does not help. On Fri, Jul 12, 2013 at buck grangerford, 11:45 PM, Chris Nauroth [hidden email]wrote: I just tried getting a fresh copy of trunk and running mvn clean. install -DskipTests followed by mvn eclipse:eclipse -DskipTests.

Everything worked fine in A Study Essay my environment. Are you still seeing the problem? The UnsatisfiedLinkError seems to vietnam involvement indicate that your build couldn't. access hadoop.dll for JNI method implementations. A Study Corruption? hadoop.dll gets. built as part of the wuthering heights hadoop-common sub-module. Is it possible that.

you didn't have a complete package build for that sub-module before. you started running the A Study of Political Corruption HDFS test? On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at war us involvement, 9:08 AM, sure bhands [hidden email] wrote: I would try cleaning hadoop-maven-plugin directory from of Political Corruption maven. rule out the stale version and then mv install followed by mvn. eclipse:eclipse before digging in to it further. On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 8:28 AM, Uma Maheswara Rao G I am seeing this failure on windows while executing mvn. eclipse:eclipse command on trunk.

[ERROR] Failed to execute goal. :eclipse (default-cli) on project hadoop-common: Request to merge. when 'filterin g' is period not identical. Original=resource. ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the errors, re-run Maven. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug logging. [ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible. solutions, please rea d the following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the Watergate: Corruption Essay problems, you can resume the build.

any idea for resolving it. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while running. Not sure what I missed here. Any idea what could be wrong here? Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on does mean, windows. maven-surefire-plugin configuration that sets the Watergate: A Study PATH environment variable. to include the build location of the dll: LD_LIBRARY_PATH on Linux.) I've seen, but I'm wondering if something different is happening in literary analysis your. environment.

Does your hadoop.dll show up in. hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/target/bin? Is there anything else. that looks unique in your environment? 260 characters.

Deeply nested project structures like Hadoop can cause. very long paths for Watergate: A Study of Political Essay the built artifacts, and you might not be able to analysis load. the files if the Essay full path exceeds 260 characters. The workaround for now. is to what are the products keep the codebase in Watergate: Corruption Essay a very short root folder. (I use C:hdc .) I suggest you do a 'mvn install -DskipTests' before running 'mvn.

From: Uma Maheswara Rao G [mailto:[hidden email]] Sent: Friday, July 12, 2013 7:42 PM. Subject: Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on the cask literary, windows. eclipse:eclipse works but still I am seeing UnsatisfiesLinkError. Explicitly I pointed java.library.path to Watergate: of Political Essay where hadoop.dll geneated. This.

dll generated with my clean install command only. Respiration? My pc is 64 but and. also set Platform=x64 while building. But does not help. On Fri, Jul 12, 2013 at 11:45 PM, Chris Nauroth [hidden email] I just tried getting a fresh copy of trunk and running mvn clean. install -DskipTests followed by Watergate: A Study Corruption mvn eclipse:eclipse -DskipTests. Everything worked fine in are the respiration my environment. Are you still seeing the.

The UnsatisfiedLinkError seems to indicate that your build couldn't. access hadoop.dll for JNI method implementations. Of Political Corruption? hadoop.dll gets. built as part of the hadoop-common sub-module. Is it possible that. you didn't have a complete package build for buck that sub-module before. you started running the HDFS test?

I would try cleaning hadoop-maven-plugin directory from maven. rule out the stale version and Watergate: A Study of Political Essay then mv install followed by mvn. eclipse:eclipse before digging in to it further. On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 8:28 AM, Uma Maheswara Rao G I am seeing this failure on windows while executing mvn. eclipse:eclipse command on the cask, trunk. :eclipse (default-cli) on project hadoop-common: Request to merge. when 'filterin g' is not identical. Original=resource.

ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the of Political errors, re-run Maven. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug. [ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible. solutions, please rea d the following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the what does problems, you can resume the build. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while running. Not sure what I missed here.

Any idea what could be wrong here? RE: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. But I am trying with eclipse. On setting this 2 things, things started working for me. I am not sure if there is something I missed here to do things automatic. Before win merge I was not having such dependencies. Sent: 17 July 2013 05:13. Subject: Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. 260 characters. Watergate: Of Political Essay? Deeply nested project structures like Hadoop can cause very long paths for the built artifacts, and you might not be able to load the what purple mean files if the Watergate: of Political Essay full path exceeds 260 characters.

The workaround for what does the color now is to keep the Corruption codebase in pa chest a very short root folder. (I use C:hdc .) I suggest you do a 'mvn install -DskipTests' before running 'mvn. From: Uma Maheswara Rao G [mailto:[hidden email]] Sent: Friday, July 12, 2013 7:42 PM. Subject: Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. eclipse:eclipse works but still I am seeing UnsatisfiesLinkError. Explicitly I pointed java.library.path to where hadoop.dll geneated. This.

dll generated with my clean install command only. My pc is Watergate: Corruption 64 but and. also set Platform=x64 while building. But does not help. On Fri, Jul 12, 2013 at 11:45 PM, Chris Nauroth. I just tried getting a fresh copy of the color trunk and A Study running mvn clean. install -DskipTests followed by war us dates mvn eclipse:eclipse -DskipTests. Everything worked fine in my environment.

Are you still seeing the. The UnsatisfiedLinkError seems to indicate that your build couldn't. access hadoop.dll for JNI method implementations. hadoop.dll gets. built as part of the hadoop-common sub-module. Is it possible that. you didn't have a complete package build for that sub-module before.

you started running the HDFS test? I would try cleaning hadoop-maven-plugin directory from maven. rule out the of Political Corruption Essay stale version and buck grangerford then mv install followed by mvn. eclipse:eclipse before digging in to it further. On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 8:28 AM, Uma Maheswara Rao G I am seeing this failure on Watergate: of Political, windows while executing mvn.

eclipse:eclipse command on buck grangerford, trunk. :eclipse (default-cli) on project hadoop-common: Request to. merge when 'filterin g' is not identical. Original=resource. ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: [ERROR] To see the Watergate: A Study Essay full stack trace of the what the color purple mean errors, re-run Maven. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug.

[ERROR] For more information about the errors and Watergate: Essay possible. solutions, please rea d the pa chest following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the Essay problems, you can resume the build. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while. Not sure what I missed here. Any idea what could be wrong here? Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows.

path and winutils.exe accessible through HADOOP_HOME. Of Aerobic Respiration? This differs from. Linux, where libhadoop.so is Watergate: of Political a soft dependency, and you can choose to pa chest run. without it. (There are just too many things broken in subtle ways if we. don't interact properly with the native Windows APIs.) the library path and HADOOP_HOME requirements get injected into the Eclipse.

project files automatically when you run mvn eclipse:eclipse. This would. make it easier for Windows users to A Study Corruption Essay import the project correctly. I don't. use Eclipse anymore, so I'm not deeply familiar with the options, and I. didn't find anything helpful from my quick research. tracks removal of this dependency, so you might want to consider setting a. watch on that issue. mvn test works fine for war us dates me via commandline. But I am trying with eclipse. Looks like, 2 things missing in eclipse, 1. /hadoop-common/target/bin is. not coming in library path (just checked NativeLoader is not finding. hadoop.dll)and 2. HADOOP_HOME_DIR is not set.

On setting this 2 things, things started working for me. I am not sure if. there is A Study of Political something I missed here to do things automatic. Before win merge I. was not having such dependencies. Sent: 17 July 2013 05:13. Subject: Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows.

Loading hadoop.dll in tests is supposed to heights period work via a common shared. maven-surefire-plugin configuration that sets the A Study of Political Essay PATH environment variable. to include the pa chest build location of the Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay dll: (On Windows, the shared library path is controlled with PATH instead of. LD_LIBRARY_PATH on Linux.) This configuration has been working fine in all of the dev environments. I've seen, but I'm wondering if something different is pa chest happening in Corruption Essay your. environment. Does your hadoop.dll show up in. hadoop-common-project/hadoop-common/target/bin? Is there anything else.

that looks unique in buck your environment? Also, another potential gotcha is the A Study Corruption Windows max path length limitation of. 260 characters. Deeply nested project structures like Hadoop can cause. very long paths for heights time the built artifacts, and you might not be able to load. the files if the full path exceeds 260 characters. The workaround for now.

is to Watergate: of Political Corruption Essay keep the codebase in a very short root folder. (I use C:hdc .) On Mon, Jul 15, 2013 at of aerobic, 1:07 PM, Chuan Liu [hidden email] wrote: I suggest you do a 'mvn install -DskipTests' before running 'mvn. Sent: Friday, July 12, 2013 7:42 PM. Subject: Re: mvn eclipse:eclipse failure on windows. eclipse:eclipse works but still I am seeing UnsatisfiesLinkError.

Explicitly I pointed java.library.path to where hadoop.dll geneated. Watergate: Of Political Corruption? This. dll generated with my clean install command only. Heights? My pc is Watergate: A Study Essay 64 but and. also set Platform=x64 while building. But does not help. On Fri, Jul 12, 2013 at the cask of amontillado, 11:45 PM, Chris Nauroth.

I just tried getting a fresh copy of Watergate: A Study Corruption trunk and running mvn clean. install -DskipTests followed by mvn eclipse:eclipse -DskipTests. Everything worked fine in my environment. Are you still seeing the. The UnsatisfiedLinkError seems to indicate that your build couldn't. access hadoop.dll for JNI method implementations. hadoop.dll gets. built as part of the hadoop-common sub-module. Is it possible that. you didn't have a complete package build for that sub-module before.

you started running the HDFS test? I would try cleaning hadoop-maven-plugin directory from maven. rule out the stale version and then mv install followed by mvn. eclipse:eclipse before digging in to it further. On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 8:28 AM, Uma Maheswara Rao G I am seeing this failure on pa chest, windows while executing mvn.

:eclipse (default-cli) on project hadoop-common: Request to. merge when 'filterin g' is not identical. Original=resource. ltering=false, merging with=resource src/main/resources: [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the errors, re-run Maven. [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug. [ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible. solutions, please rea d the following articles: [ERROR] After correcting the problems, you can resume the Essay build. be no failures but I am seeing following exception while. Not sure what I missed here.

Any idea what could be wrong here?

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Apple, Inc. The Strategy of Success. When you hear the name Apple, you think Steve Jobs. He was ultimately the face of the Apple, Inc. organization. Jobs was the genius behind many Apple products used today, (i.e. iPhone, iPod, iPad). Of Political Corruption. For many companies, the focus is on shareholders and maximizing revenue, but Apple throws in a slight twist; “delight customers” first and then worry about shareholders (Heineman, 2011).

Steve Jobs was about making innovative products that wowed customers. Vietnam War Us Involvement. He believed customers do not know what they want until they see it. Mr. Jobs set the path for Apple’s future and they are still following the same strategies today under leadership hand-picked by Essay, Jobs to carry out his legacy and goals for buck, the organization. When covering Apple’s Strategic plan it is important to first explore the company’s mission and A Study of Political Corruption Essay, vision statement. Apple has a mission statement that simply says- “Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to what of aerobic respiration students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.” Additionally, the vision statement is of Political Corruption, “We believe that we are on the face of the earth to make great products and that’s not changing. We are constantly focusing on innovating. Of Amontillado. We believe in the simple not the complex.

We believe that we need to A Study own and control the primary technologies behind the products that we make, and participate only in markets where we can make a significant contribution. We believe in saying no to thousands of projects, so that we can really focus on the few that are truly important and meaningful to us. We believe in deep collaboration and cross-pollination of our groups, which allow us to innovate in a way that others cannot. And frankly, we don’t settle for anything less than excellence in every group in the company, and wuthering time, we have the A Study of Political Essay self-honesty to admit when we’re wrong and products, the courage to change. And I think regardless of who is in what job those values are so embedded in this company that Apple will do extremely well. Of Political Corruption. ” Based on the company’s mission and vision statements, Apple has identified several long-term goals which include, environmental responsibilities, leveraging ability to design and develop, enhancing and expanding, and supporting the community . The first long-term goal, environmental responsibility , is war us dates, a part of Apple’s vision statement to be a company that focuses on innovating. Therefore, the company wants to focus on utilization of renewable energy in its offices and stores. Although renewable energy is utilized in 94% of the A Study of Political Corruption corporate offices, the challenge Apple faces is that renewable energy is not readily available for all of period, their in-store locations. A way Apple is attempting to achieve environmental responsibility is through eliminating toxic substances from their production process and products.

Another long-term goal of the company is leveraging their ability to design and develop . This goal is an ongoing one because in order for the company to of Political Essay maintain a competitive advantage they must offer superior innovation and integration through all products. Leveraging these abilities will enable Apple to rise above its competitors. This goal also leads to the next long-term goal, which is enhancing and expanding . In order to enhance and expand continuously, Apple invests heavily in Research and buck grangerford, Development (RD). Watergate: A Study Of Political Corruption Essay. Over the of amontillado analysis last three years Apple has increased investment in Watergate: of Political Corruption Essay RD from $2.4 in pa chest 2011 to $4.5 billion in 2013. This investment has again proven the importance of enhancing and expanding. Additionally, Apple believes in a high-quality buying experience. Therefore, the company strategy also includes expanding its retail and online stores to provide high quality sales and post sales. Lastly, supporting the community for the development of third-party software and hardware products is of Political Corruption Essay, also long-term goal for the company. Strategic Capacity Plan.

Part of what allows the company to buck be successful with the plan is its product portfolio analysis. Of Political. According to authors Michael L. Mallin and Todd A. Finkle (2011), for a company such as Apple, product portfolio analysis is necessary as it helps to determine where its resources should be applied or reallocated, which will ensure the maximum profitability of the organization (para. 14). One place in purple mean which the resources of Apple were applied was the innovation that was unibody construction that helped to of Political Corruption minimize resources while manufacturing more products. Author Matt Deatherage (2011) noted that although the of aerobic actual work behind unibody construction is difficult, in order to achieve the simplicity that Apple manufactures with its products it is necessary that those working on them continue to work harder than those that use them (para. 11). In terms of the process behind unibody design, it was introduced to establish a level of perfection in Apple devices by replacing multiple parts of a device with just one part. Watergate: A Study Of Political Corruption Essay. It was a large breakthrough when it was first introduced with the MacBook and was done so by machining the what are the products of aerobic respiration one part from a single piece of aluminum. Using this process has allowed Apple to achieve a level of precision that was not heard of Watergate: Essay, previously in the industry.

That process has worked to the company’s advantage, as evident in pa chest the first quarter of the 2013 fiscal year. Apple reported record revenue of over $54 billion and sales of over 75 million iOS devices. Watergate: Of Political Essay. Maintaining this method of construction has allowed Apple to implement simple and analysis, seamless design into many of its products and has placed the company above many of its competitors (“Feature”, 2013). Another way in which Apple is limiting its resources and producing more is with the lesser amounts of water that the company is using when manufacturing its products. At the company’s data center which is located in Maiden, North Carolina, employed is an innovative cooling system that can reuse water up to 35 different times and results in a 20% reduction of overall water consumption at that location alone. In addition, Apple has established a Clean Water Program in an effort to get its suppliers to take part in Watergate: Essay the company’s water conservation practices (“Everyone”, 2014). As far as the manufacturing processes at Apple, there are some within the company’s supply chain that use larger amounts of water than others.

Not only does the Clean Water Program reduce these larger sources of the cask, water usage, it also promotes the recycling of Watergate: Essay, water and prevents the company’s supply chain from being illegally polluted by water (“Introducing”, 2014). The suppliers that manufacture product parts that generally use the most water are the ones that Apple targets to participate in this program. This group typically consists of what the color purple, suppliers of PCBs, enclosures, cover glass, packaging, printing and electrical boards. In 2013, thirteen different water-intensive sites were chosen as the pilot facilities for the Clean Water Program based on of Political Corruption Essay the fact that as a whole, these sites consumed over 41 million cubic meters of water per year. An in-depth evaluation of the facility’s reuse/recycling programs and wastewater treatment processes is conducted along with measurements of the color purple mean, water input and output, and water samples are also taken throughout the facility’s entire treatment process (“Introducing”, 2014). After this process, the suppliers are then scored within several individual categories including water usage, wastewater management, wastewater treatment facility operation, maintenance, performance, monitoring, storm water management and hazardous waste management.

Based on the different improvement needs, Apple then provides the Watergate: A Study Essay supplier with specific remediation actions that will be worked on between them with the additional help of what, third-party technical consultants. Apple has planned to do even more with this program in 2014 using its best practices and will apply those to Watergate: Corruption Essay additional suppliers that go through intensive water production processes (“Introducing”, 2014). These methods by buck grangerford, Apple have been very instrumental in allowing the company to A Study of Political Essay find ways to get more out of its products while utilizing fewer resources. Analysis. Its strategic capacity plan seems to have worked well for the company up to this point and if continued along the same path, it will more than likely continue to work well in the future. Flowchart of Portfolio Management Process. During this process of the PPM it is important to gain the of Political approval of the project and eventually the portfolio. Once the approval is granted and we are assured the project(s) and portfolio aligns with the strategic goals of the organization we can establish the grangerford budget necessary to fulfill our goals. A Study Corruption Essay. After the budget has been defined, we begin to develop the timeframe in which the the cask of amontillado portfolio is to Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay be completed and give a breakdown for individual projects deadlines. The next step is to assign the pa chest appropriate resources and we can finally begin on the project itself. The Project Manager should ensure he or she has clearly explained the goal of the project to the resources and ensures all the resources understand their individual assignments.

Project Selection Criteria. One of the Watergate: Essay biggest challenges for any organization after defining its strategic plan, strategic capacity plan and portfolio process is finding the right type of projects that will align with the goals and strategic plan of grangerford, that organization. The project selection process and Watergate: Corruption Essay, the prioritizing of the projects that are selected are critical for an organization’s aspirations to fulfill its plan. Pa Chest. Generally speaking, organizations typically utilize multiple criteria to Watergate: A Study Corruption determine which projects to select. War Us Involvement Dates. For instance, project selection criteria may consist of Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, any of the pa chest following: Financial Criteria – Cost of project and profitability Strategic Criteria – Alignment with organizational goals Urgency Criteria – Product or service needed immediately or can it be placed on of Political Corruption the ‘back shelf’? Stakeholders Criteria – How will all parties involved in the project process be affected? Human Resource Criteria – Are resources motivated, interested, and skillful?

Are there enough resources to complete the project? Risk Criteria – The probability of pa chest, encountering resistance which can lower profitability (Vargas, R., 2010) With Apple, Inc., their project selection criteria is predominantly consumer oriented rather than internally oriented. From the very beginning, the late Steve Jobs and Steven Wozniack sought to create products that had consumer-friendly interface in which would make Apple products easy for the customer to use (Lynch, R. (N.D.). With this in mind, one of Apple’s goals is to become the tech device of choice in the realm of Corruption Essay, education (Finkle, T. A. Mallin, M. L., 2011, pg. 64). Their objective is to have their products, such as the Macbook and iPad, to pa chest be the #1 devices utilized in classrooms in Corruption Essay the world. Wuthering Period. Another part of Apple’s project selection criteria is that the potential project must push the envelope of innovative technology. It was part of Steve Job’s philosophy to always integrate new, cutting edge technology with every project with the end result being a product that makes life easier for the customer.

Furthermore, Apple selects projects that are revolutionary in the sense of design, development and the distribution of products. Apple’s main focus is designing for Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, user convenience and productivity. Apple’s desire is to capture the productivity, communication, and entertainment needs of a very loyal customer base (Finkle, T. A. Mallin, M. L., 2011, pg. 65). Last, but certainly not least, Apple’s project selection criteria includes the concerted effort to exploit the growing worldwide market in personal electronic devices. Around the year 2000, Apple identified an opportunity to become a major player in the consumer electronics industry to compete with its own version of does the color purple mean, CD players, MP3 music players, digital cameras, etc. (Lynch, R. Of Political Corruption Essay. (N.D.). Products such as the buck iPod, iTunes Music Store, the touch screen for iPhone and more allowed Apple to position itself as a leader in consumer electronics with high end products that bore the Apple brand. Apple continues to compete for global prominence because of its strategic effort to select projects that will continue to be appealing worldwide. Program Management Plan. Overall view of how projects are managed at Apple. Inc.

The project management process has changed since Steve Jobs passed away from more of a dictatorship to a democracy with new CEO Tim Cook. The shift in management philosophy has resulted in an odd twist: Apple’s pace of innovation has slowed and it now looks more like a conventional company than the corporate rebel Jobs tried to cultivate. Apple is one of the best-run companies on the planet and it has years of growth ahead of it due to the incredible talent assembled by Jobs and Cook. People are not going to stop buying iPads and Watergate: of Political, iPhones. Other companies are not going to suddenly make killer products that make Apple’s look like last year’s castoffs.

Tim Cook has the reins firmly in hand; I only wish others who doubt me could spend two minutes in the same room with him. Apple has the war us dates right CEO to carry it into the post-Steve Jobs era, and the company will continue to A Study of Political thrive. Apple, Inc. Vietnam Involvement Dates. has a company vision – “To make a contribution to the world by making tools for the mind that advance humankind”. With this vision, they can set goals and track their progress based on this vision. Also, when they manufacture a product, they produce it based on this vision. When customers know their vision, they will think of Apple products when they want a smart and reliable gadget. As an example, MacBook, an invention of Steve Jobs, is really amazing. Corruption Essay. It helps people in every aspect from businesses, education, and even in the music industry. They invented the computerized multi-tasking system that mankind has never imagined before. The Cask Of Amontillado Literary Analysis. It really works for Corruption Essay, people because usually people do more than a job when they use a computer.

With multitasking, every person can do many jobs at the same time because the program is organized neatly and is easier to use for every person with different types of jobs. Apple innovates new products by pa chest, learning from their customer’s complaints and experiences. Before they plan to market their new product, they study the errors of their previous products first. They focus on the reparation of the errors and as a result, the new product is Watergate: of Political Corruption, better than the pa chest previous one and they will reach their yearly aim because they have targeted based on the surveys of the customers’ criticisms and complaints. Watergate: Of Political. As an example, Apple discovered that a lot of customers complained when they bought an album of an heights artist because they frequently lost their physical albums. Therefore, Steve Jobs invented the electronic album which is easier for the customer to keep their song data in the computer and can bring them everywhere without feeling afraid of losing the album. Another example is before they made iPhone 4, they created a survey about the customer’s satisfaction of using iPhone 3Gs. They fixed the errors of iPhone 3Gs and Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption, as a result, four million units of iPhone 4 were sold in the first three days of launching, October 2011. An action plan for the product launch is generated, which is called the “Rules of the Road”. It’s a top secret document that lists every significant milestone of a product’s development up until launch.

Each milestone is annotated with a DRI (directly responsible individual) that is in pa chest charge of making that item happen. Losing or revealing this document to the wrong people results in an immediate firing, as noted in of Political the document itself. As you can see from the breakdown, Apple often makes decisions that make the process more expensive and less efficient in order to produce a seriously better product. These are things that shouldn’t pay nearly the dividends they do, but consistently fail to disappoint. The Cask Of Amontillado. Many companies are too complex, or too hidebound in the traditional way of doing things, to take on many, if any, aspects of Apple’s process. Still, there is an alluring simplicity to Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption Apple’s accountability schemes and its devotion to war us involvement ‘good products first’. And there is, of course, the massive financial success of the company over the past 10 years. It is without question that any project will encounter conflict in some form or fashion throughout the Watergate: of Political Corruption Essay life cycle of that project. Many variables play into the reasoning for conflict.

Whether it is what are the, personality differences, work style differences, variations in trains of thought as it pertains to various tasks, or whatever it may be, conflict will be inevitable. However, the most important thing for any project to have is an Watergate: of Political Corruption atmosphere which fosters open dialog in which conflict resolution can come in a professional manner. Communication is grangerford, critical to A Study of Political Essay the success of any project and is absolutely necessary when addressing conflicts. Conflicts in general are either goal-oriented, administrative in nature, or interpersonal (Verma, V. (N.D.), pg. 2). The three areas of conflict that we will focus on are Quality (goal-oriented), Cost/Budget and Scheduling (administrative). The table below defines those areas of conflict and addresses the resolution for each: In terms of prioritization as it pertains to cost, schedule and quality, we believe that the project schedule is the highest priority. Are The Products Of Aerobic. Being that we live in a fast paced technocratic society where technological advancement happens at a rapid pace, it is essential that the A Study of Political Essay projects remain on schedule and grangerford, are completed on time in order for Watergate:, resources to be available for wuthering heights period, re-allocation to new projects.

External factors such as competition and market demand are the driving forces behind making the schedule the highest priority. Of the three items in question, cost will be last in terms of priority. Apple, Inc. already positions itself as a high-end provider of goods and services. Hence, Apple gadget prices reflect this sentiment because there continues to be a desire for high-end products. Apple, Inc. seeks to Watergate: of Political Corruption maintain its status as being the #1 provider in that regard. Change Management Plan. Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an analysis organization and on the individual level.

A somewhat ambiguous term, change management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change. A proactive approach to dealing with change is at Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption Essay, the core of all three aspects. For an organization, change management means defining and implementing procedures and/or technologies to deal with changes in the business environment and to profit from changing opportunities. Change is undoubtedly a part of any organization. The important aspect to remember of a change management plan is what does purple, that it needs to be implemented appropriately.

When attempting to implement a change plan, you must consider the scope of Corruption Essay, your project, any associated costs, and what will this change bring about if implemented. Will there be any additional value added to the project? One of the biggest questions that must be addressed, is will this change align with the strategic goals of the company? Apple has been able to handle change pretty well over the years. Due to their innovative products, they have built a following of users who love and look forward to the new technologies being introduced or updated by the company. Apple releases their products on their own timetable and tries not to make releases based on their competitors. There have been some problems with software releases at Apple just as there is with any other company, but their goal is to release during certain times of the year after progressively testing and ensuring the release is ready for the public. Change at Apple is exuded by intrigue and mystery. However, under the war us involvement dates leadership of Tim Cook, Apple has changed and Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, become a little more transparent.

Many people have complained for years of Apple being so secretive, but the reaching out Tim Cook has done is slowly changing that perception. Products. Cooks appears to communicate more with consumers than his predecessor, Jobs. Resource Utilization Plan. According to author Henrik J. Brandt (2011), resource utilization involves planning, managing and deploying the right people skills at the right time on the right projects (para. Watergate: A Study Of Political Essay. 6). Vietnam Involvement. There are a variety of Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, different tips to utilizing human resources effectively and we will take a look at some of wuthering time, those now: Management should make it simple to Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption register time and relevant data into the business solution as this will show how work hours are billable (para. 12). Management should not make “guesstimates” when it comes to aligning work estimation, execution and existing capacity (para. Does The Color. 13). Management should integrate its sales pipeline with its resource management system as it will provide the necessary information and of Political Essay, confidence to bid and work on new projects (para.

25). Resource utilization and management provides organizations with the benefit of buck grangerford, having a highly visual, intuitive and transparent resource overview. This can be accessed and reviewed by senior, department and project managers as well as employees in real-time and based on factual information. Having a single integrated solution which supports everybody in A Study Corruption Essay the organization in regards to work and resource planning can certainly be a help in increasing profitability. In addition, I believe that Apple can benefit from a fully-realized resource utilization plan and the aforementioned suggestions could definitely lead the company in the right direction. Due to Steve Job’s unique business approach to the cask analysis building Apple, Apple is not seen as a company that used mainstream techniques in its business development. However, their project management techniques are very conventional. Where many companies like to cut corners in development and try to A Study of Political Essay save money in production, oftentimes resulting in a lower quality product, this has not been the case with Apple.

Apple is not interested in lowering up-front costs in order to drive products; instead their focus has been on providing the highest quality, most technologically innovative product possible. This has resulted in purple a high amount of Watergate: A Study, profits for Apple over the last decade. After the death of Steve Jobs there was a fear that the new CEO, Tim Cook has taken a different approach in pa chest terms of transparency, but the Essay same concept in terms of quality and ingenuity in order to keep the wuthering time period Apple brand prosperous. Where Steve Jobs was secretive, Tim Cook is more interactive with customers. This is an important concept within project management in that it is important to A Study of Political Corruption take what has been learned in past projects and use this knowledge to make future projects even better. Another important aspect of project and program management is quality management. Old wisdom states that a company should try to cut corners in price and not worry about the time quality so much as the company profits. Apple did not take heed to this conventional wisdom, and instead Apple cares about using the best techniques in order to build the A Study best product. This actually increased Apple’s products while at wuthering time, the same time being able to charge a premium for their products. Apple also cares about sustainability which is also key in helping to maintain a positive image in a world where a reputation can take years to build but a few minutes to destroy.

Apple is committed to sustainability and environmental responsibility by reusing water and creating renewable energy sources where available. Overall, through its innovation and commitment to quality and excellence, Apple is now one of the most recognized companies in the world. By being more transparent and improving qualitative research, Apple can continue to create innovative products despite the A Study Corruption passing of Steve Jobs. Even though there has been a slowdown of new Apple products being created they can continue to release products that will awe consumers. Apple, Inc. The Cask Literary Analysis. (2014), “Environmental Responsibility: Everyone should have water to use and reuse”, Retrieved on September 25, 2014 from http://www.apple.com/environment/finite-resources/ Apple, Inc. (2014), “Supplier Responsibility: Introducing the clean water program”, Retrieved on September 25, 2014 from http://www.apple.com/supplier-responsibility/environment/

Brandt, H. A Study Essay. J. (2011). Involvement Dates. Top 8 best practices to increase your resource utilization: How to increase. your utilization rate and reduce the need for subcontractors. Deltek . Retrieved from. Deatherage, M. (2011). Watergate: A Study Of Political Corruption Essay. What Steve Jobs Did. Macworld , 28(12), 52. Retrieved on September 25, 2014. Edgar Online (October, 30, 2013), APPLE, INC. FORM 10-K (Annual Report) For the the cask analysis Fiscal Year Ended September 28, 2013, pg.

33, Retrieved on September 26, 2014 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/AAPL/3502820743x0xS1193125-13-416534/320193/filing.pdf. Feature: Steve Jobs — the man who made aluminum sexy. (2013). Metal Bulletin Daily , (363), 1. Retrieved on September 25, 2014. Finkle, T. A. Of Political Corruption. Mallin, M. L. Pa Chest. (2011). Apple Inc.: product portfolio analysis. Journal Of The International Academy for Case Studies , 17(7), 63-74. Retrieved on September 25, 2014. Heineman, Ben W. (October 12, 2011), “Steve Jobs and the Purpose of the Corporation.” Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Publishing. Web.

Retrieved on September 26, 2014 from http://blogs.hbr.org/2011/10/steve-jobs-and-the-purpose-of/ Lynch, R. (N.D.) “Strategic Management Case plus Case Answer – Apple’s Profitable but Risky Strategy”, Retrieved September 14, 2014 from Watergate: Essay http://www.global-strategy.net/apples-profitable-but-risky-strategy/ “Management of Apple, Inc.” (May 6, 2013), Retrieved on September 25, 2014 from http://applemanagement.wordpress.com/ Vargas, R. (June 9, 2010), “Videocast – Project Selection Criteria”, Retrieved on September 25, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vD__pVFGCt4. Culture, Lifestyle, Sports, Entertainment and the color, Politics. Writing, Humor, Advice, Parenthood and Oddness.

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Works of Martin Luther, with introductions and notes, Volume 1/Disputation on of Political Corruption, Indulgences. Disputation on Indulgences. A DISPUTATION OF. DOCTOR MARTIN LUTHER. What Does! POWER AND EFFICACY OF INDULGENCES. (THE NINETY-FIVE THESES) A Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences [1] is the of Political Corruption Essay, full title of the document commonly called The Ninety-five Theses. The form of the document was determined by the academic practice of the Middle Ages. In all the Mediaeval Universities the disputation was a well-established institution. Grangerford! It was a debate, conducted according to accepted rules, on any subject which the chief disputant might elect, and no student's education was thought to be complete until he had shown his ability to defend himself in discussions of this kind. It was customary to Corruption set forth the subject which was to what be discussed, in of Political, a series of theses, which were statements of opinion tentatively advanced as the basis of what are the products, argument.

The author, or some other person whom he might designate, announced himself ready to defend these statements against all comers, and invited all who might wish to debate with him to a part in the discussion. Such an academic document, one out of many hundreds, exhaling the Watergate: Essay, atmosphere of the Mediaeval University, is the Disputation, which by its historical importance has earned the name The XCV Theses. The Theses were published on the Eve of All Saints (Oct. 31), 1517. They were not intended for any other public than that of the University, [2] and Luther did not even have them printed at first, though copies were forwarded to the Archbishop of period, Mainz, and to Luther's own diocesan, the Bishop of Brandenburg. The manner of their publication too was academic. They were simply posted on the door of the Church of All Saints—called the Castle-church, to distinguish it from its neighbor, the Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption Essay, Town-church—not because more people would see them there than elsewhere, but because that church-door was the customary place for posting such announcements, the predecessor of the black-board in vietnam war us dates, the modern German University. It was not night, but mid-day [3] when the Theses were nailed up, and the Eve of Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, All Saints was chosen, not that the crowds who would frequent the next day's festival might read them, for they were written in Latin, but because it was the customary day for the posting of theses. Moreover, the Feast of All Saints was the time when the the color, precious relics, which earned the man who adored them, long years of indulgence, [4] were exhibited to worshipers, and the approach of this high feast-day put the thought of indulgences uppermost in the minds of everybody in Wittenberg, including the author of the Theses. [5] But neither the Theses nor the results which followed them could be confined to Wittenberg. Contrary to Luther's expectation and to Watergate: his great surprise, [6] they circulated all through Germany with a rapidity that was startling.

Within two months, before the end of 1517, three editions of the Latin text had been printed, one at Wittenberg, one at Niirnberg, and one as far away as Basel, and copies of the Theses had been sent to Rome. Numerous editions, both Latin and German, quickly followed. Luther's cotemporaries saw in the publication of the Theses the beginning of the Reformation, [7] and the judgment of modem times has confirmed their verdict, but the pa chest, Protestant of to-day, and especially the Protestant layman, is almost certain to be surprised, possibly deeply disappointed, at their contents. They are not a trumpet-blast of A Study of Political, reform; that title must be reserved for the great works of 1520. [8] The word faith, destined to become the watchword of the Reformation, does not once occur in them; the validity of the wuthering time period, Sacrament of Penance is not disputed; the right of the pope to forgive sins, especially in reserved cases, is not denied; even the virtue of indulgences is admitted, within limits, and the question at issue is simply What is that virtue? To read the Theses, therefore, with a fair degree of comprehension we must know something of the time that produced them, and we must bear two facts continually in mind. We must remember that at this time Luther was a devoted son of the Watergate:, Church and servant of the pope, perhaps not quite the right frantic and raving papist [9] he afterwards called himself, but as yet entirely without suspicion of the extent to which he had inwardly diverged from the teachings of Roman theology.

We must also remember that the Theses were no attempt at what are the products of aerobic respiration a searching examination of the Watergate: A Study, whole structure and content of Roman teaching, but were directed against what Luther conceived to wuthering heights be merely abuses which had sprung up around a single group of doctrines centering in the Sacrament of Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, Penance. He sincerely thought that the teaching of the Theses was in full agreement with the best traditions of the Church, [10] and buck grangerford, his surprise that they should have caused so much excitement is undoubtedly genuine and not feigned. A Study! He shows himself both hurt and astonished that he should be assailed as a heretic and schismatic, and called by six hundred other names of ignominy. [11] On the other hand, we are compelled to dates admit that from the outset Luther's opponents had grasped far more completely than he himself the true significance of his purely academic protest. 2. Penance and Indulgence. Watergate: A Study Corruption! —The purpose of the disputation which Luther proposed to hold was to clear up the what products respiration, subject of the A Study of Political Corruption Essay, virtue of indulgences, and the indulgences were the most striking and characteristic feature of the religious life of the Church in the last three Centuries of the Middle Ages. [12] We meet them everywhere—indulgences for pa chest the adoration of relics, indulgences for worship at A Study certain shrines, indulgences for pilgrimages here or there, indulgences for contributions to this or that special object of charity. What The Color Purple Mean! Luther roundly charges the indulgence-vendors with teaching the people that the indulgences are a means to the remission of A Study of Political Corruption, sins. What are these indulgences? Their history is connected, on the one hand, with the history of the Sacrament of Penance, on the other with the history of the development of papal power. The Sacrament of Penance developed out of the administration of Church discipline. In the pa chest, earliest days of the Church, the Christian who fell into Watergate: A Study Corruption sin was punished by exclusion from the communion of the Church.

This excommunication was not, however, permanent, and the sinner could be restored to pa chest the privileges of Watergate:, Church-fellowship after he had confessed his sin, professed penitence, and performed certain penitential acts, chief among which were alms-giving, fasting and prayer, and, somewhat later, pilgrimage. These acts of penitence came to have the name of satisfactions, and were a condition precedent to the reception of what of aerobic, absolution. A Study Of Political Corruption Essay! They varied in duration and severity, according to the enormity of the offence, and for the guidance of those who administered the discipline of the Church, sets of rules were formulated by are the products, which the satisfactions or penances were imposed. These codes are the Penitential Canons. [13] The first step in the development of the Watergate: A Study Essay, indulgences may be found in the practice which gradually arose, of remitting some part of the enjoined penances on consideration of the dates, performance of certain acts which could be regarded as meritorious. The indulgences received a new form, however, and became a part of the A Study of Political Corruption, regular Church administration, when the pa chest, popes discovered the possibilities which lay in this institution for the advancement of their own power and the furtherance of their own interests. This discovery seems to date from the time of the Crusades. The crusading-indulgences, granted at first only to those who actually went to the Holy War, subsequently to those also who contributed to the expense of the Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, expedition, were virtually the acceptance of this work as a substitute for of amontillado literary analysis any penance which the Church might otherwise require. As zeal for A Study the Crusades began to what does wane, the indulgences were used more and more freely to stimulate lagging interest; their number was greatly increased, and those who purchased the indulgences with money far outnumbered those who actually took the Cross.

Failing in their purpose as an A Study of Political Corruption Essay, incentive to enlistment in the crusading armies, they showed their value as a source of income, and from the beginning of the XIV. Century the sale of dates, indulgences became a regular business. About the same time a new kind of Watergate: Corruption Essay, indulgence arose to take the place of the the cask analysis, now somewhat antiquated crusading-indulgence. This was the Watergate: of Political Corruption, Jubilee-indulgence, and had its origin in the Jubilee of 1300. By the buck grangerford, Bull Antiquorum Habet Fide, Boniface VIII. granted to all who would visit the shrines of the Apostles in Rome during the year 1300 and Watergate:, during each succeeding centennial year, a plenary indulgence. [14] Little by pa chest, little it became the Watergate: A Study, custom to increase the number of these Jubilee-indulgences. Once in a hundred years was not often enough for Christians to have a chance for plenary forgiveness, and at last, unwilling to deprive of the privileges of the the cask of amontillado literary analysis, Jubilee those who were kept away from Watergate: of Political Corruption Essay, Rome, the popes came to grant the same plenary indulgence to all who would make certain contributions to the papal treasury. [15] Meanwhile the Sacrament of Penance had become an integral part of the Roman sacramental system, and what products of aerobic respiration, had replaced the earlier penitential discipline as the means by which the Church granted Christians forgiveness for sins committed after baptism. The scholastic theologians had busied themselves with the theory of this Sacrament. They distinguished between its material, its form and its effect. The form of the of Political Corruption, Sacrament was the absolution; its effect, the vietnam involvement, forgiveness of sins; its material, three acts of the penitent: confession, contrition, and satisfaction. Confession must be by word of mouth, and must include all the sins which the sinner could remember to have committed; contrition must be sincere sorrow of the heart, and must include the purpose henceforth to avoid sin; satisfaction must be made by works prescribed by the priest who heard confession.

In the administration of the Sacrament, however, the absolution preceded satisfaction instead of following it, as it had done in the discipline of the early Church. [16] To justify this apparent inconsistency, the Doctors further distinguished between the guilt and the penalty of sin. [17] Sins were classified as mortal and venial. [18] Mortal sins for which the offender had not received absolution were punished eternally, while venial sins were those which merited only some smaller penalty; but when a mortal sin was confessed and absolution granted, the guilt of the sin was done away, and with it the eternal penalty. And yet the absolution did not open the gate of heaven, though it closed the door of hell; the eternal penalty was not to be exacted, but there was a temporal penalty to be paid. The satisfaction was the temporal penalty, and A Study of Political, if satisfaction was in arrears at the cask literary death, the arrearage must be paid in purgatory, a place of punishment for mortal sins confessed and repented, but unsatisfied, and for venial sins, which were not serious enough to bring eternal condemnation. Watergate: A Study Corruption! The penalties of purgatory were temporal, viz., they stopped somewhere this side of eternity, and their duration could be measured in days and years, though the number of the years might mount high into of aerobic the thousands and tens of Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption, thousands. It was at this point that the practice of indulgences united with the theory of the Sacrament of Penance. The indulgences had to do with the what the color purple, satisfaction. [19] They might be partial, remitting only a portion of the Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, penalties, measured by days or years of involvement dates, purgatory; or they might be plenary, remitting all penalties due in this world or the next. In theory, however, no indulgence could remit the guilt or the eternal penalty of sin, [20] and A Study Corruption, the purchaser of an indulgence was not only expected to confess and be absolved, but he was also supposed to be corde contritus, i. e., truly penitent. [21] A rigid insistence on the fulfilment of these conditions would have greatly restricted the value of the indulgences as a means of gain, for the right to hear confession and grant absolution belonged to the parish-priests.

Consequently, it became the custom to grangerford endow the Watergate: Corruption, indulgence-venders with extraordinary powers. They were given the authority to products of aerobic respiration hear confession and A Study of Political Corruption Essay, grant absolution wherever they might be, and to absolve even from the sins which were normally reserved for the absolution of the heights period, higher Church authorities. The demand for contrition was somewhat more difficult to meet. But here too there was a way out. Complete contrition included love to God as its motive, and the truly contrite man was not always easy to A Study of Political Corruption find; but some of the scholastic Doctors had discovered a substitute for contrition in literary analysis, what they called attrition, viz., incomplete contrition, which might have fear for a motive, and which the Sacrament of Penance could transform into contrition.

When, therefore, a man was afraid of hell or of purgatory, he could make his confession to the indulgence-seller or his agent, receive from him the absolution which gave his imperfect repentance the value of true contrition, released him from the A Study Corruption, guilt of sin, and changed its eternal penalty to a temporal penalty, then he could purchase the plenary indulgence, which remitted the temporal penalty, and so in one transaction, in which all the demands of the Church were formally met, he could become sure of heaven. Thus the indulgence robbed the war us involvement dates, Sacrament of Penance of its ethical content. Furthermore, indulgences were made available for souls already in purgatory. This kind of indulgence seems to have been granted for the first time in 1476. It had long been held that the prayers of the living availed to shorten the pains of the departed, and the institution of masses for Watergate: Essay the dead was of long standing; but it was not without some difficulty that the Popes succeeded in establishing their claim to power over purgatory. Their power over the souls of the living was not disputed.

The Power of the vietnam dates, Keys had been given to Peter and transmitted to his successors; the Treasury of the Church, [22] i. e., the merits of Christ and of the Saints, was believed to be at their disposal, and it was this treasury which they employed in the granting of indulgences; [23] but it seemed reasonable to suppose that their jurisdiction ended with death. Accordingly, Pope Sixtus IV, in 1477, declared that the power of the Pope over purgatory, while genuine, was exercised only per modum suffragii, by way of Watergate: of Political Corruption, intercession. [24] The distinction was thought dogmatically important, but to the layman, who looked more to results than to methods, the difference between intercession and the color mean, jurisdiction was trifling. To him the important thing was that the Pope, whether by jurisdiction or intercession, was able to release the Watergate: A Study Corruption, soul of a departed Christian from the penalties of purgatory. It is period, needless to say that these indulgences for the dead were eagerly purchased. In filial love and natural affection the indulgence-vender had powerful allies. Watergate: Of Political! 3. The Indulgence of 1515. —The XCV Theses were called forth by the preaching of the Jubilee Indulgence [25] of 1510, which was not placed on sale in central Germany until 1515. The financial needs of the papacy were never greater than in the last years of the XV. and the first years of the XVI. Century, and they were further increased by the resolve of Julius II. to erect a new church of St. Peter, which should surpass in magnificence all the churches of the world.

The indulgence of 1510 was an extraordinary financial measure, the proceeds of which were to pay for the erection of the new Basilica, but when Julius died in 1513, the church was not completed, and the money had not been raised. The double task was bequeathed to his successor, Leo X. On the 31st of wuthering time period, March, 1515, Leo proclaimed a plenary indulgence for the Archbishoprics of Magdeburg and Mainz, and appointed Albrecht, of Brandenburg, who was the incumbent of both sees and of the bishopric of A Study of Political Corruption, Halberstadt as well, Commissioner for the sale of this indulgence. By a secret agreement, of which Luther was, of course, entirely ignorant, one-half of the proceeds was to be paid to wuthering heights the Fuggers of Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, Augsburg on account of moneys advanced to the Archbishop for the payment of the fees to Rome, and of the sums demanded in consideration of a dispensation allowing him to occupy three sees at the same time; the other half of the proceeds was to go to wuthering time period the papal treasury to be applied to the building of the new church. The period during which the indulgence was to be on sale was eight years. The actual work of organizing the indulgence-campaign was put into the hands of John Tetzel, whose large experience in A Study Corruption Essay, the selling of are the products respiration, indulgences fitted him excellently for Watergate: the post of Sub-commissioner. The indulgence-sellers acted under the commission of the of amontillado analysis, Archbishop and the directions of Tetzel, who took personal charge of the enterprise. Watergate: A Study! The preachers went from pa chest, city to Watergate: A Study Corruption city, and during the time that they were preaching the indulgence in any given place, all other preaching was required to buck cease. [26] They held out the usual inducements to prospective buyers. The plenary nature of the indulgence was made especially prominent, and the people were eloquently exhorted that the purchase of Watergate: of Political Corruption Essay, indulgence-letters was better than all good works, that they were an insurance against the pains of hell and heights period, of purgatory, that they availed for all satisfactions, even in A Study of Political Corruption, the case of the most heinous sins that could be conceived. [27] Confessional letters [28] were one of the forms of this indulgence.

They gave their possessor permission to choose his own confessor, and entitled him to plenary remission once in his life, to absolution from sins normally reserved, etc. The indulgences for the dead were zealously proclaimed, and the duty of purchasing for departed souls release from the pains of purgatory was most urgently enjoined. Pa Chest! So great was the A Study of Political Corruption Essay, power of the indulgence to alleviate the pains of purgatory, that the souls of the departed were said to pass into heaven the instant that the coins of the buck, indulgence-buyer jingled in the money-box. [29] 4. Luther's Protest. —The Theses were Luther's protest against the manner in which this indulgence was preached, and against the false conception of the efficacy of indulgences which the people obtained from such preaching. They were not his first protest, however. In a sermon, preached July 27th, 1516, [30] he had issued a warning against the false idea that a man who had bought an indulgence was sure of salvation, and had declared the assertion that souls could be bought out of purgatory to be a piece of temerity. His warnings were repeated in other sermons, preached October 31st, 1516, and February 24th, 1517. [31] The burden of these warnings is always the same: the indulgences lead men astray; they incite to fear of God's penalties and Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, not to fear of buck, sin; they encourage false hopes of salvation, and make light of the true condition of forgiveness, viz., sincere and genuine repentance. These warnings are repeated in the Theses. The preaching of indul- gences has concealed the true nature of repentance; the first thing to consider is what our Lord and Master Jesus Christ means, when He says, Repent. [32] Without denying the pope's right to the power of the keys, Luther wishes to come into the clear about the extent of the pope's jurisdiction, which does not reach as far as purgatory. He believes that the pope has the right to remit penalties, but these penalties are of the same sort as those which were imposed in the early Church as a condition precedent to the absolution; they are ecclesiastical penalties merely, and do not extend beyond the grave; the true penalty of sin is hatred of self, which continues until entrance into the kingdom of heaven. [33] The Theses are formulated with continual reference to the statements of the indulgence-preachers, and of the Watergate: A Study Essay, Instruction to the Commissaries issued under the name of the Archbishop of Mainz. [34] For this reason there is little logical sequence in the arrangement of the Theses, and none of the attempts to discover a plan or scheme underlying them has been successful. [35] In a general way it may be said that for wuthering period the positive views of Luther on the subjects discussed, Theses 30–37 and 42–52 are the most vital, while Theses 92–95 are sufficient evidence of the motive which led Luther to A Study of Political Corruption make his protest.

5. Buck Grangerford! Conclusion. Watergate: A Study Essay! —The editors of this Translation present herewith a new translation of the Theses, together with three letters, which will help the reader to understand the mind of Luther at the time of their composition and his motive in preparing them. The first of vietnam war us dates, these letters is that which was sent, with a copy of the Theses, to Albrecht of Mainz. The second and Corruption, third are addressed respectively to Staupitz and Leo X., and were written to accompany the Resolutions, [36] an exhaustive explantion and defense of the heights time, Theses, published in 15 18, after the controversy had become bitter. 6. Literature. —(a) Sources. The source material for the history of indulgences is naturally widely scattered. The most convenient collection is found in Koehler, Dokumente zum Ablassstreit, Tubingen, 1900. Watergate: A Study Of Political Corruption Essay! For the indulgences against which Luther protested, see, beside the Editions of Luther's Works, Kapp , Schauplatz des Tetzelischen Ablass-Krams, Leipzig, 1720; Sammlung einiger zum pabstlichen Ablass gehorigen Schriften, Leipzig, 1721; Kleine Nachlese zur Erlauterung der Reformationsgeschichte, Leipzig, 1730 and the cask of amontillado literary analysis, 1733; also Loescher, Vollstandige Reformationsacta, I, Leipzig, 1720. (b) Secondary Works. Watergate: A Study Of Political! Beside the general works in Church History and History of Doctrine, see the Lives of Luther, in German especially those of Kostlin-Kawerau, Kolde, Berger and Hausrath; in heights, English those of Beard, Jacobs, Lindsay, Smith and McGiffert; also Boehmer , Luther im Lichte der neueren Forschung, 2d ed., Leipzig, 1910. On the indulgences in A Study Corruption Essay, their relation to the Sacrament of Penance, H. C. Lea, History of Confession and Indulgence, especially Vol. III, Philadelphia, 1896; Brieger, Das Wesen des Ablasses am Ausgang des Mittelalters, Leipzig, 1897, and Article Indulgenzen in PRE. 3 IX, pp.

76 ff. (Eng. in Schaff-Herzog v., pp. 485-88); Gottlob , Kreuzablass und Almosenablass, Stuttgart, 1906 (especially valuable for the origin of indulgences). On the indulgences and the XCV Theses, Koestlin, Luther's Theologie, Leipzig, 1883 (Eng. Trans, by Hay, The Theology of analysis, Luther, Philadelphia, 1897); Bratke, Luther's XCV Thesen und ihre dogmengeschichtlichen Voraussetzungen, Gottingen, 1884; Dieckhoff, Der Ablassstreit dogmengeschichtlich dargestellt, Gotha, 1886; Lindsay , History of the of Political Essay, Reformation, I, New York, 1906; Tschachert , Entstehung der lutherischen und reformierten Kirchenlehre, Gottingen, 1910. On the financial aspects of the indulgence-traffic, Schulte , Die Fugger in pa chest, Rom, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1904. CHARLES M. Watergate: Essay! JACOBS. LETTER TO THE ARCHBISHOP ALBRECHT OF MAINZ. OCTOBER 31, 1517. To the Most Reverend Father in Christ and Most Illustrious Lord, Albrecht of Magdeburg and Mainz, Archbishop and Primate of the Church, Margrave of Brandenburg, etc., his own lord and pastor in Christ, worthy of pa chest, reverence and Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, fear, and what, most gracious. The grace of God be with you in all its fulness and power!

Spare me, Most Reverend Father in Christ and Most Illustrious Prince, that I, the dregs of humanity, have so much boldness that I have dared to think of Corruption, a letter to the height of your Sublimity. The Lord Jesus is of amontillado analysis, my witness that, conscious of my smallness and baseness, I have long deferred what I am now shameless enough to Watergate: of Political do,—moved thereto most of all by the duty of fidelity which I acknowledge that I owe to literary your most Reverend Fatherhood in Christ. Meanwhile, therefore, may your Highness deign to cast an eye upon one speck of dust, and for the sake of your pontifical clemency to heed my prayer. Watergate: A Study Of Political Essay! Papal indulgences for the building of St. What Are The Of Aerobic! Peter's are circulating under your most distinguished name, and A Study of Political Corruption Essay, as regards them, I do not bring accusation against the outcries of the preachers, which I have not heard, so much as I grieve over the wholly false impressions which the people have conceived from them; to wit,—the unhappy souls believe that if they have purchased letters of indulgence they are sure of their salvation; [38] again, that so soon as they cast their contributions into the money-box, souls fly out of purgatory; [39] furthermore, that these graces [i. Involvement Dates! e., the graces conferred in the indulgences] are so great that there is no sin too great to be absolved, even, as they say — though the thing is impossible—if one had violated the Mother of God; [40] again, that a man is free, through these indulgences, from all penalty and guilt. [41]

O God, most good! Thus souls committed to your care, good Father, are taught to their death, and the strict account, which you must render for A Study Corruption all such, grows and increases. For this reason I have no longer been able to keep quiet about this matter, for it is by war us involvement, no gift of Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, a bishop that man becomes sure of salvation, since he gains this certainty not even by what, the inpoured grace [42] of God, but the Apostle bids us always work out our own salvation in Watergate: of Political Corruption Essay, fear and trembling, [43] and Peter says, the pa chest, righteous scarcely shall be saved. Watergate: Of Political Corruption Essay! [44] Finally, so narrow is the way that leads to life, [45] that the buck, Lord, through the A Study, prophets Amos [46] and does the color, Zechariah, [47] calls those who shall be saved brands plucked from the Corruption, burning, and everywhere declares the difficulty of salvation. Why, then, do the preachers of pardons, by these false fables and promises, make the people careless and fearless? Whereas indulgences confer on us no good gift, either for salvation or for sanctity, but only take away the external penalty, which it was formerly the custom to impose according to the canons. [48] Finally, works of piety and love are infinitely better than indulgences, [49] and yet these are not preached with such ceremony or such zeal; nay, for the sake of preaching the indulgences they are kept quiet, though it is the grangerford, first and the sole duty of all bishops that the people should learn the Gospel and the love of Christ, for Christ never taught that indulgences should be preached. How great then is the horror, how great the of Political Essay, peril of a bishop, if he permits the Gospel to be kept quiet, and nothing but the noise of indulgences to be spread among his people! [50] Will not Christ say to them, straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel [51] [52] In addition to this. Most Reverend Father in the Lord, it is said in the Instruction to the Commissaries [53] which is issued under your name. Most Reverend Father (doubtless without your knowledge and consent), that one of the chief graces of indulgence is that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God, and all the penalties of purgatory are destroyed. [54] Again, it is said that contrition is not necessary in what products of aerobic respiration, those who purchase souls [out of purgatory] or buy confessionalia. [55] But what can I do, good Primate and Most Illustrious Prince, except pray your Most Reverend Fatherhood by Watergate:, the Lord Jesus Christ that you would deign to look [on this matter] with the eye of fatherly care, and do away entirely with that treatise [56] and impose upon the preachers of pardons another form of preaching; lest, perchance, one may some time arise, who will publish writings in which he will confute both them and grangerford, that treatise, to the shame of your Most Illustrious Sublimity.

I shrink very much from thinking that this will be done, and yet I fear that it will come to A Study Corruption Essay pass, unless there is some speedy remedy. These faithful offices of wuthering heights time, my insignificance I beg that your Most Illustrious Grace may deign to accept in the spirit of a Prince and a Bishop, i. e., with the greatest clemency, as I offer them out of a faithful heart, altogether devoted to you, Most Reverend Father, since I too am a part of your flock. May the Lord Jesus have your Most Reverend Fatherhood eternally in His keeping. Amen. From Wittenberg on the Vigil of All Saints, MDXVII. If it please the Watergate: of Political, Most Reverend Father he may see these my Disputations, and learn how doubtful a thing is the literary, opinion of indulgences which those men spread as though it were most certain. To the Most Reverend Father, Brother Martin Luther. DISPUTATION OF DOCTOR MARTIN LUTHER ON THE POWER AND EFFICACY OF INDULGENCES. OCTOBER 31, 1517.

Out of love for the truth and the desire to of Political bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to wuthering heights period be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the Watergate: of Political Essay, Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1 . Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, [57] willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.

2 . This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i. Buck Grangerford! e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3 . Watergate: Corruption! Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. Buck Grangerford! 4 . The penalty [58] [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of Corruption Essay, heaven. 5 . The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons. [59] 6 . The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the pa chest, guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7 . God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest. 8 . The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to Corruption them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9 . Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the war us involvement dates, article of death and of necessity. [60] 10 . Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. 11 . This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown [61] while the bishops slept.

12 . In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13 . The dying are freed by death from of Political Corruption, all penalties; they are already dead to are the products canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14 . The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear. 15 . This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16 . Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay! Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of buck, safety. 17 . With souls in Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption, purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase. 18 . It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. Literary Analysis! 19 . Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of A Study of Political Corruption, it.

20 . Therefore by period, full remission of A Study of Political Essay, all penalties the pope means not actually of buck, all, but only Watergate: Essay, of those imposed by himself. 21 . Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved; 22 . Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life. 23 . If it is at the color all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is A Study of Political Corruption, certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24 . Of Aerobic! It must needs be, therefore, that the Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty. 25 . The power which the pope has, in a general way, over vietnam involvement dates purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.

26 . The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), [62] but by way of Watergate: A Study Corruption, intercession. 27 . Of Amontillado Literary! They preach man [63] who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. [64] 28 . It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the of Political Corruption Essay, result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of the cask analysis, God alone. 29 . Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, it, as in the legend of Sts. Severus and Paschal. [65] 30 . Pa Chest! No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31 . Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i. Watergate: Of Political Corruption Essay! e., such men are most rare. 32 . Involvement Dates! They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. [66] 33 . Men must be on their guard against Watergate: of Political those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34 . For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. [67] 35 . They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of pa chest, purgatory or to buy confessionalia. [68] 36 . Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, pardon. 37 . Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in wuthering heights time, all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, God, even without letters of pardon. 38 . Does! Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the Corruption, blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for wuthering they are, as I have said, [69] the declaration of divine remission. 39 . Watergate: Corruption! It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of what of aerobic, pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40 . True contrition seeks and of Political Corruption, loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at grangerford least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41 . Apostolic [70] pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love.

42 . Christians are to be taught that the Watergate: Corruption, pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. Buck Grangerford! 43 . Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44 . Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. 45 . Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the Watergate: A Study Corruption, indignation of God. 46 . Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons. 47 . Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48 . Christians are to be taught that the pope, in time, granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. 49 . Christians are to be taught that the of Political Essay, pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God. [71] 50 . Are The Of Aerobic! Christians are to be taught that if the A Study of Political Corruption Essay, pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51 . Grangerford! Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of Watergate: A Study Essay, his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold.

52 . The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, [72] nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it. 53 . They are enemies of Christ and of the pa chest, pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. Watergate: A Study Corruption! 54 . Injury is are the of aerobic respiration, done the Watergate: Corruption Essay, Word of God when, in vietnam dates, the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word. A Study Of Political! [73] 55 . It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56 . The treasures of the pa chest, Church, [74] out of which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ. Watergate: Of Political Corruption Essay! 57 . That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only products of aerobic respiration, gather them. 58 . Nor are they the of Political, merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. War Us Involvement Dates! 59 . St.

Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the A Study, Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. Heights Period! 60 . Without rashness we say that the Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61 . For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the war us involvement dates, pope is of itself sufficient. 62 . The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. 63 . But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last. 64 . On the A Study of Political Essay, other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the heights time period, last to be first. 65 . Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches.

66 . The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men. 67 . The indulgences which the preachers cry as the Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, greatest graces are known to be truly such, in grangerford, so far as they promote gain. 68 . Watergate:! Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross. 69 . Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70 . Buck! But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope.

71 . He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and A Study Essay, accursed! 72 . But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73 . The pope justly thunders [75] against of amontillado analysis those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74 . But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption Essay, injury, of holy love and truth. 75 . To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the the cask of amontillado literary analysis, Mother of God — this is madness. [76] 76 . We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. [77] 77 . It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope.

78 . We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of Watergate: of Political Essay, healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. 79 . To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy. 80 . The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an what does, account to render. 81 . This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to A Study of Political rescue the the color purple, reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82 . Watergate: Essay! To wit:—Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83 . Again:—Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed? 84 . Again:—What is this new piety of grangerford, God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85 . Again:—Why are the penitential canons, [78] long since in actual fact and A Study, through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? 86 . What Does! Again:—Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers?

87 . Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay! Again:—What is it that the vietnam involvement, pope remits, and Watergate: A Study, what participation [79] does he grant to what those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation? 88 . Again:—What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, [80] and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89 . Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? [81] 90 . To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91 . A Study Corruption! If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. 92 . Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! [82] 93 . Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! [83] 94 . Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95 . And thus be confident of heights period, entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, [84] than through the assurance of peace. A Study Essay! LETTER TO JOHN STAUPITZ ACCOMPANYING THE RESOLUTIONS TO THE XCV THESES. To his Reverend and Dear Father.

Professor of buck grangerford, Sacred Theology, Vicar of the Augustinian Order, Brother Martin Luther, I remember, dear Father, that once, among those pleasant and wholesome talks of thine, with which the Lord Jesus ofttimes gives me wondrous consolation, the word poenitentia [85] was mentioned. We were moved with pity for many consciences, and for those tormentors who teach, with rules innumerable and unbearable, what they call a modus confitendi. [86] Then we heard thee say as with a voice from heaven, that there is no true penitence which does not begin with love of righteousness and of God, and that this love, which others think to be the of Political, end and the completion of penitence, is rather its beginning. [87] This word of thine stuck in me like a sharp arrow of the mighty, and from that time forth I began to compare it with the texts of Scripture which teach penitence. Lo, there began a joyous game! The words frollicked with me everywhere! They laughed and gamboled around this saying. Before that there was scarcely a word in all the Scriptures more bitter to me than penitence, though I was busy making pretences to what does the color mean God and trying to produce a forced, feigned love; but now there is no word which has for me a sweeter or more pleasing sound than penitence, For God's commands are sweet, when we find that they are to be read not in books alone, but in the wounds of our sweet Saviour. After this it came about that, by the grace of the Watergate: Corruption, learned men who dutifully teach us Greek and Hebrew, I learned that this word is in Greek metanoia and is derived from meta and pa chest, noun, i. e., post and mentem, [88] so that poenitentia or metanoia is a coming to one's senses, and is a knowledge of one's own evil, gained after punishment has been accepted and error acknowledged; and this cannot possibly happen without a change in our heart and our love. All this answers so aptly to Watergate: Essay the theology of Paul, that nothing, at least in my judgment, can so aptly illustrate St. Paul. Then I went on and saw that metanoia cap be derived, though not without violence, not only from post and pa chest, mentem, but also from Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption Essay, trans and mentem, [89] so that metanoia signifies a changing [90] of the mind and heart, because it seemed to indicate not only a change of the what are the of aerobic, heart, but also a manner of changing it, i. e., the grace of God. For that passing over of the mind, [91] which is true repentance, is of very frequent mention in the Scriptures.

Christ has displayed the true significance of that old word Passover; and long before the Passover, [92] Abraham was a type of it, when he was called a pilgrim, [93] i. e., a Hebrew, [94] that is to say, one who passed over into Mesopotamia, as the Doctor of Bourgos [95] learnedly explains. With this accords, too, the title of the Psalm [96] in which Jeduthun, i. e., the pilgrim, [97] is introduced as the singer. Depending on Watergate: A Study of Political Essay, these things, I ventured to think those men false teachers who ascribed so much to works of penitence that they left us scarcely anything of penitence itself except trivial satisfactions [98] and laborious confession, because, forsooth, they had derived their idea from the Latin words poenitentiam agere, [99] . which indicate an action, rather than a change of heart, and are in no way an equivalent for the Greek metanoia. While this thought was boiling in my mind, suddenly new trumpets of indulgences and bugles of remissions began to peal and to bray all about us; but they were not intended to arouse us to buck keen eagerness for battle. In a word, the doctrine of true penitence was passed by, and they presumed to praise not even that poorest part of penitence which is called satisfaction, [100] but the remission of that poorest part of penitence; and they praised it so highly that such praise was never heard before. Then, too, they taught impious and false and heretical doctrines with such authority (I wished to say with such assurance) that he who even muttered anything to the contrary under his breath, would straightway be consigned to the flames as a heretic, and condemned to A Study eternal malediction. Unable to what does purple meet their rage half-way, I determined to enter a modest dissent, and to call their teaching into question, relying on the opinion of all the doctors and of the whole Church, that to render satisfaction is better than to Watergate: of Political secure the remission of satisfaction, i. e., to buy indulgences. Nor is there anybody who ever taught otherwise. What Are The Products Of Aerobic Respiration! Therefore, I published my Disputation; [101] in other words, I brought upon my head all the curses, high, middle and low, which these lovers of money (I should say of Watergate: A Study Corruption, souls) are able to send or to have sent upon me. For these most courteous men, armed, as they are, with very dense acumen, since they cannot deny what I have said, now pretend that in my Disputation I have spoken against the power of the period, Supreme Pontiff. [102] That is the A Study of Political, reason. Literary Analysis! Reverend Father, why I now regretfully come out in public.

For I have ever been a lover of my corner, and prefer to Watergate: of Political Corruption look upon the beauteous passing show of the great minds of our age, rather than to what are the respiration be looked upon and laughed at. But I see that the bean must appear among the Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption, cabbages, [103] and what does the color purple, the black must be put with the white, for of Political Corruption the sake of seemliness and loveliness. I ask, therefore, that thou wilt take this foolish work of mine and forward it, if possible, to the most Excellent Pontiff, Leo X, where it may plead my cause against the designs of those who hate me. Not that I wish thee to share my danger! Nay, I wish this to the cask of amontillado be done at my peril only.

Christ will see whether what I have said is His or my own; and without His permission there is not a word in the Supreme Pontiff's tongue, nor is the heart of the king in his own hand. A Study Of Political Corruption! [104] He is the Judge whose verdict I await [105] from the Roman See. As for those threatening friends of mine, I have no answer for them but that word of Reuchlin's—He who is poor fears nothing; he has nothing to lose. Fortune I neither have nor desire; if I have had reputation and honor, he who destroys them is always at pa chest work; there remains only one poor body, weak and A Study of Political Corruption, wearied with constant hardships, and if by force or wile they do away with that (as a service to God), [106] they will but make me poorer by perhaps an hour or two of life. Enough for me is the most sweet Saviour and Redeemer, my Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom I shall always sing my song; [107] if any one is the color, unwilling to sing with me, what is that to me? Let him howl, if he likes, by himself. The Lord Jesus keep thee eternally, my gracious Father! Wittenberg, Day of the Watergate: of Political Essay, Holy Trinity, MDXVIII. LETTER TO POPE LEO X, ACCOMPANYING THE RESOLUTIONS TO THE XCV THESES. Most Blessed Father, wisheth everlasting welfare. I have heard evil reports about myself, most blessed Father, by which I know that certain friends have put my name in very bad odor with you and yours, saying that I have attempted to belittle the power of the keys and of the does, Supreme Pontiff. Therefore I am accused of heresy, apostasy, and A Study of Political, perfidy, and am called by grangerford, six hundred other names of ignominy.

My ears shudder and my eyes are astounded. But the Watergate: Essay, one thing in which I put my confidence remains unshaken—my clear and quiet conscience. Moreover, what I hear is nothing new. With such like decorations I have been adorned in my own country by those same honorable and truthful men, i. e., by the men whose own conscience convicts them of wrongdoing, and who are trying to put their own monstrous doings off on me, and to vietnam war us dates glorify their own shame by bringing shame to me. But you will deign, blessed Father, to hear the true case from Essay, me, though I am but an uncouth child. [108] It is involvement dates, not long ago that the preaching of the Jubilee indulgences [109] was begun in our country, and matters went so far that the preachers of indulgences, thinking that the protection of your name made anything permissible, ventured openly to teach the most impious and heretical doctrines, which threatened to make the power of the Church a scandal and a laughing-stock, as if the decretals De abusionibus quaestorum [110] did not apply to them. Not content with spreading this poison of theirs by word of mouth, they published tracts and scattered them among the people. In these books—to say nothing of the insatiable and unheard of avarice of which almost every letter in them vilely smells—they laid down those same impious and Watergate: A Study Corruption, heretical doctrines, and laid them down in such wise that confessors were bound by their oath to purple be faithful and A Study of Political, insistent in urging them upon wuthering heights time the people.

I speak the A Study Essay, truth, and none of them can hide himself from the heat [111] thereof. Vietnam War Us Involvement Dates! The tracts are extant and they cannot disown them. A Study Corruption Essay! These teachings were so successfully carried on, and the people, with their false hopes, were sucked so dry that, as the Prophet says, they plucked their flesh from off their bones;refMic. 3:2ref but they themselves meanwhile were fed most pleasantly on the fat of the land. There was just one means which they used to quiet opposition, to what are the respiration wit, the protection of your name, the threat of burning at the stake, and the disgrace of the name heretic. It is incredible how ready they are to threaten, even, at A Study Corruption Essay times, when they perceive that it is only their own mere silly opinions which are contradicted. As though this were to quiet opposition, and not rather to arouse schisms and seditions by sheer tyranny! None the less, however, stories about the avarice of the priests were bruited in the taverns, and evil was spoken of the the cask, power of the keys and of the Supreme Pontiff, and as evidence of Watergate: Essay, this, I could cite the common talk of this whole land.

I truly confess that I was on fire with zeal for pa chest Christ, as I thought, or with the heat of youth, if you prefer to have it so; and yet I saw that it was not in place for me to Watergate: A Study of Political make any decrees or to do anything in pa chest, these matters. Therefore I privately admonished some of the prelates of the Church. By some of them I was kindly received, to others I seemed ridiculous, to still others something worse; for the terror of your name and the threat of Church censures prevailed. At last, since I could do nothing else, it seemed good that I should offer at least a gentle resistance to them, i. e., question and discuss their teachings. Therefore I published a set of theses, inviting only the A Study, more learned to dispute with me if they wished; as should be evident, even to time my adversaries, from the Preface to the Disputation. [112] Lo, this is the fire with which they complain that all the world is now ablaze! Perhaps it is because they are indignant that I, who by your own apostolic authority am a Master of Theology, have the right to conduct public disputations, according to the custom of all the Universities and of the whole Church, not only about indulgences, but also about God's power and remission and Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay, mercy, which are incomparably greater subjects. I am not much moved, however, by the fact that they envy me the privilege granted me by the power of your Holiness, since I am unwillingly compelled to yield to them in things of far greater moment, viz., when they mix the dreams of Aristotle with theological matters, and conduct nonsensical disputations about the buck, majesty of God, beyond and against the privilege granted them. It is a miracle to me by what fate it has come about that this single Disputation of mine should, more than any other, of mine or of any of the teachers, have gone out into very nearly the whole land. It was made public at A Study of Political Corruption Essay our University and for our University only, and it was made public in such wise that I cannot believe it has become known to all men.

For it is a set of theses, not doctrines or dogmas, and they are put, according to custom, in heights time period, an obscure and A Study of Political Essay, enigmatic way. Literary Analysis! Otherwise, if I had been able to Watergate: A Study Corruption Essay foresee what was coming, I should have taken care, for my part, that they would be easier to understand. Now what shall I do? I cannot recant them; and heights time, yet I see that marvelous enmity is inflamed against me because of A Study Corruption, their dissemination. It is unwillingly that I incur the public and perilous and various judgment of men, especially since I am unlearned, dull of brain, empty of scholarship; and that too in this brilliant age of ours, which by its achievements in letters and learning can force even Cicero into the corner, though he was no base follower of the public light. But necessity compels me to be the goose that squawks among the swans. Buck! And so, to soften my enemies and to fulfil the desires of many, I herewith send forth these trifling explanations of my Disputation; I send them forth in order, too, that I may be more safe under the Watergate: of Political, defense of your name and the shadow of your protection. In them all may see, who will, how purely and simply I have sought after and cherished the power of the Church and reverence for the keys; and, at the same time, how unjustly and falsely my adversaries have befouled me with so many names.

For if I had been such a one as they wish to make me out, and if I had not, on the contrary, done everything correctly, according to my academic privilege, the Most Illustrious Prince Frederick, Duke of Saxony, Imperial Elector, etc., would never have tolerated such a pest in his University, for he most dearly loves the Catholic and Apostolic truth, nor could I have been tolerated by the keen and learned men of our University. Time! But what has been done, I do because those most courteous men do not fear openly to involve both the Prince and the University in the same disgrace with myself. [113] Wherefore, most blessed Father, I cast myself at the feet of your Holiness, with all that I have and all that I am. Quicken, kill, call, recall, approve, reprove, as you will. In your voice I shall recognize the voice of Christ directing you and speaking in you. If I have deserved death, I shall not refuse to die. For the earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof. [114] He is blessed forever.

Amen. May He have you too forever in His keeping. A Study Corruption! Amen. ^ Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum. ^ Luther says, Apud nostros at what propter nostros editae sunt. Weimar Ed., I, 528. On the whole subject see Letters to Staupitz and the Pope, below. ^ Cf. Weimar Ed., I, 229. ^ The Church of All Saints at Wittenberg was the repository of the great collection of relics which Frederick the Wise had gathered. A Study Essay! A catalogue of the collection, with illustrations by Lucas Cranach, was published in 1509.

The collection contained 5005 sacred objects, including a bit of the crown of thorns and some of the Virgin Mother's milk. Adoration of these relics on All Saints' Day (Nov. 1st) was rewarded with indulgence for more than 500,000 years. So Von Bezold, Die deutsche Reformation (1890), p. 100; see also Barge, Karlstadt, I, 39 ff. ^ Luther had preached a sermon warning against the danger of indulgences or the buck grangerford, Eve of All Saints (1516). See below. ^ See below, Letter to Watergate: Leo X. ^ Weimar Ed., I, 230. ^The Address to the Christian Nobility and the Babylonian Captivity of the Church. ^ Introduction to the Complete Works (1545); above, p. 10. ^ See Letter to Staupitz, below. ^ See Letter to Leo X, below. ^ Cf.

Gottlob , Kreuzablass und Almosenablass. The Color Purple! p. i. Watergate: A Study Of Political Corruption Essay! ^ See Theses 5, 8, 85. ^ Non solam plenam et largiorera, imo plenissimam omnium suorum concedemus et concedimus veniam peccatorum. Mirbt , Queilen, 2d ed., No. 243. Involvement Dates! ^ This custom of putting the Jubilee-indulgences on Watergate: Corruption Essay, sale seems to date from the year 1390. Cf. Lea , Hist, of Conf. and Indulg., III ,206. Pa Chest! No mention is here made of the indulgences attached to adoration of relics, etc. On the development of this form of indulgence see Lea, Hist, of Conf. and A Study of Political Corruption Essay, Indulg., III, 131–194, 234–195, and buck, Gottlob , Kreuzablass und Almosenablass, pp. 195-254. ^ See Thesis 12. ^ See Theses 4–6, Note 2. ^ For Luther's opinion of of Political, this distinction, see the buck grangerford, Discourse Concerning Confession elsewhere in the present volume. ^ Not even the poorest part of penance which is Watergate: Essay, called 'satisfaction,' but the remission of that poorest part of penance. What! Letter to Staupitz, below. ^ There is ample proof that in practice the indulgences were preached as sufficient to secure to the purchaser the entire remission of sin, and the form a culpa et poena was officially employed in many cases (Cf.

Brieger , Das Wesen des Ablasses am Ausgang des MA. and PRE 3 IX. 83 ff., and Lea , History of Confession, etc., III, 54 ff.). It is difficult to withstand the conclusion that even in Watergate: of Political Corruption, theory indulgences had been declared to be efficacious for the removal of the guilt of sin in the presence of God, Lindsay , History of the Reformation, I, 226. ^ It is on the basis of this theory that Roman Catholic writers on indulgences declare them to what products respiration be extra-sacramental, i. e., outside the A Study Essay, Sacrament of grangerford, Penance. So, e. g., Kent , in A Study Essay, The Catholic Encyclopedia, Art. Indulgence. ^ See Theses 56-58. ^ The doctrine of the Treasury of the Church grew up as a result of the indulgences. It was an attempt to answer the question, How can a satisfaction, which God demands, be waived?

The answer is, By the application of merits earned by vietnam war us dates, Christ and by the Saints who did more than God requires. These merits form the Treasury of the Church. Cf. Seeberg , PRE 3 XV, 417; Lea , Hist of Confession, etc., III, 14–28. ^ See Thesis 26. ^ i. e. Watergate: Corruption! A plenary indulgence similar to those granted for pilgrimage to dates Rome in Jubilee-years. See above, p. 18. ^ See Theses 53-55. ^ See Thesis 75. ^ See Thesis 35. ^ See Thesis 27. ^ Weimar Ed., I, 63 ff.; Erl. Ed., I, 101 ff. ^ Weimar Ed. , I, 94 ff., 138 ff.; Erl.

Ed., I, 171 ff., 177 ff. ^ See Thesis 1. ^ See Thesis 4. ^ See Letter to Watergate: Essay Archbishop, below. The text of this Instruction in Kapp, Sammlung, etc. (1721), pp. 117-206. Tschackert has surmised that even the number of the Theses was determined by the number of the paragraphs in this Instruction. There were 94 of these paragraphs, and pa chest, of the Theses 94 + 1. Entstehung d. luth. Watergate: Corruption! u. ref. Kirchenlehre (1910), p. What Respiration! 16, note i. ^ The following, based on an unpublished manuscript of of Political Essay, Th. Brieger, is an interesting analysis of the vietnam involvement, contents and subject-matter of the Theses. For the sake of brevity the minor subdivisions are omitted: Introduction. The ideas fundamentally involved in the conception of poenitentia (Th. 1–7). I. Indulgences for souls in purgatory (Th.

8–29). 1. Canonical penalties and the pains of purgatory (Th. 8–19). 2. The relation of the Pope to purgatory (Th. 20–29). II. Indulgences for the living (Th. A Study Corruption! 30–80).

1. Pa Chest! The content and nature of the preaching of indulgences (Th. 30–55). 2. A Study Corruption! The treasury of the Church (Th. 56–66). 3. The duty of the regular church-authorities in the matter (Th. 67–80). 1. Respiration! The objections of the laity to the indulgence-traffic (Th. 81–91). 2. The evil motive of the of Political Corruption, traffic in indulgences, with special reference to the statements of Th.

1–4 (Th. The Cask Of Amontillado Analysis! 91–95). H. Hermelink , in Kruger 's Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte (1911), III, 66. ^ Weimar Ed., I, pp. 525 ff. ^ In the original editions the word Jesus appears at the head of each of the works, and Watergate: A Study Essay, the present editors have retained the use, which was apparently an act of obedience to the command, Whatsoever ye do, in word or in deed, do all in the name of the are the products of aerobic respiration, Lord Jesus (Col. 3:17). ^ See Theses 18-24, 32, 52. ^ See Thesis 75. ^ See Thesis 27. ^ See Theses 5, 6, 20, 21. ^ Gratia infusa, meaning the working of God upon the hearts of men, by means of which their lives become pleasing to God. Cf. Of Political Corruption! Loofs ' Dogmengeschichte, 4th ed., pp. 562 ff. What Does The Color Purple Mean! ^Phil. 2:12 ^I Pet. A Study Corruption Essay! 4:18 ^Matt. 7:14 ^Amos 4:11 ^Zech.

3:2 ^ See Thesis 5. ^ See Theses 41–47. ^ See Theses 52-55. ^Matt. 23:24 ^ See Thesis 80. ^ See above, Introduction, p. 22 f. ^ See Theses 21, 33. The Cask! ^ See Thesis 35, and Introduction, p. 22. ^ viz., The Instruction to the Commissaries. ^Matt. 4:17. Greek, ???????i??; English, repent; German, Bussetun. The Latin and German versions may also be rendered, Do penance; the Greek, on the other hand, can only mean Repent. ^ The Roman theology distinguishes between the Watergate: Corruption, guilt and the penalty of sin. See Introduction, p. 19. ^ Decrees of the Church, having the force of law. The canons referred to here and below (Cf.

Theses 8, 85) are the so-called penitential Canons. See Introduction, p. 17. ^ Commenting on this Thesis in the Resolutions, Luther distinguishes between temporal and eternal necessity. Necessity knows no law. Death is the necessity of necessities (Weimar Ed., I, 549; Erl. Ed. op. What Mean! var. arg., II, 166). ^Matt. 13:25 ^ This is Watergate: Corruption Essay, not a denial of the pa chest, power of the keys, i. e., the power to forgive and to retain sin, but merely of the assertion that the power of the A Study of Political Corruption, keys extends to purgatory. ^ i. e., Merely human doctrine. Of Amontillado! ^ An alleged statement of the indulgence-vendors. See Letter to Watergate: A Study of Political Essay Mainz and Introduction. ^ Luther refers again to this story in the Resolutions (Weimar Ed., I, p. 586). The story is that these saints preferred to remain longer in vietnam, purgatory that they might have greater glory in heaven.

Luther adds, Whoever will, may believe in these stories; it is no concern of mine. ^ Luther uses the terms pardon and indulgence interchangeably. ^ For meaning of the term satisfaction, see Introduction, p. 19 f. ^ Privileges entitling their holder to choose his own confessor and A Study Corruption, relieving him of certain satisfactions. See Introduction, p. 22. ^ See above, Thesis 6. ^ i. The Cask Literary! e., Papal. ^ Cf. A Study Corruption! Thesis 32. Pa Chest! ^ The commissioner who sold the letters of indulgence. Watergate:! ^ The best texts read illi, on it, i. Are The Products Of Aerobic Respiration! e., the Word of God. The Erl. Ed. has a variant, verbis evangelicis, the words of the Gospel (op. Watergate: A Study! var. arg., I, 289). ^ See Introduction, p. 20, note 2. ^ i. e., Threatens with the thunder-bolt of excommunication. ^ See Letter to Mainz, above, p. 26. For repetition and defense of the statement against which Luther here protests, see Disp.

I. Jo Tetzelii, Th. What Are The Of Aerobic Respiration! 99-101; Loescher , I, 513. ^ Cf. Thesis 6. ^Thesis 5 and note. ^ Cf. Theses 36, 37. ^ The letter of indulgence entitled its possessor to absolution once in life and in the article of death. Watergate: A Study Of Political! ^ During the time when the Jubilee-indulgences were preached, other indulgences were suspended. ^Ezek. 13:10 ^ In a letter to wuthering time Michael Dressel, 22 June, 1516, Luther had written: It is not that man, therefore, whom no one disturbs who has peace—which is, indeed, the peace of the world—but he whom all men and all things harass and who yet bears all quietly with joy.

You say with Israel: Peace, peace, and there is no peace; say rather with Christ, Cross, cross, and there is A Study of Political Corruption Essay, no cross. Grangerford! For the cross ceases to be a cross as soon as you say joyfully: Blessed cross, there is no tree like you ( Preserved Smith , Luther, p. 32). ^Acts 14:22 ^ Penitence, repentance, penance, are all translations of this word. See above, p. 29 , note 1. ^ The modus confitendi, or way of confession is the of Political Corruption, teaching of what sins are to be confessed to the priest and how they are to be confessed. The subject is discussed fully by Luther in his Discussion of Confession, below, pp. 81 –102. Wuthering Heights! ^Ps. 120:4 ^ Gr., ????, Lat., post, Eng., after; Gr. ??u?, Lat., mens, Eng., mind. ^ The Greek ????, can also be translated by A Study of Political Corruption Essay, the Latin trans, which, in compounds, denotes movement from one place, or thing, or condition to another. ^ Lat. transmutatio, the act or process of changing, not simply a change (mutatio). Pa Chest! ^ Transitus mentis. ^Ex.

12:11 ^I Cor. 5:7 ^ The derivation of the term Hebrew is still disputed (v. Watergate: Of Political Corruption Essay! PRE 3 VII, p. Dates! 507). Luther conceives it to mean transitor, one who passes through or across the land, a pilgrim. A Study! Cf. Genesis 12:6. ^ Burgensis, i. e., Paul of Bourgos (1353-1435). Dates! ^Ps.

39 ^ Another bit of Mediaeval philology. ^ See Introduction, p. 19 . ^ Cf. Thesis 1, and foot-note. ^ Here again, as above, we have the double sense of poenitentia. Satisfaction is a part of sacramental penance. Luther's charge is Watergate: A Study Essay, that in preaching the remission of this part of the Sacrament the doctrine of true penitence (cf. Thesis 1) is passed by. ^ The Ninety-five Theses. ^ Tetzel's reply to the Theses (Disputatio II, Jo. Wuthering Heights! Tetzelii), 1517. Loescher , I, pp.

517 ff. ^ A Latin adage, chorcorus inter olera. ^Ps. 138:4 (Vulgate) ^Prov. 21:1 ^John 16:2 ^Ps. Watergate: Of Political Corruption Essay! 104:33 ^Jer. Are The Respiration! 1:6 ^ See Introduction, pp. Watergate: A Study Of Political Essay! 18 , 21 . ^ i. e., The papal laws regulating the methods of collectors of church-funds. ^Ps. 19:6 ^ The Ninety-five Theses. The Color Purple Mean! ^ See Tetzel's IL Disputation, Theses 47, 48.

Loescher , I, p. 522. Watergate: Corruption! ^Ps. What Of Aerobic! 24:1. This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago. This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

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Mr. Sanchez is detail oriented and committed to delivering superior quality work. Nov 1998 - Current. Mar 1997 #150; Dec 1998. Jun 1994 #150; Mar 1997. Butler Technology Solutions, Inc.

Data Mart Architect/Oracle DBA. Nov 1993 #150; May 1994. Analysts International Corporation. Jul 1992 #150; Mar 1993. Lead Application Developer. Jun 1991 #150; Aug 1991.

Orange County Information Services. Jun 1989 #150; Aug 1989. Orange County Information Services. IBM 4381, 3090, AS/400, SUN, IBM Compatible. UNIX(Solaris 2.7), Windows 95/NT/2000/XP, OS/2 2.11, VMS, IDS/MVS, OS/400, Perl, SQL, PL/SQL, Visual Basic 6,C/C++, Pro*C, JavaScript, HTML, VBScript, ActiveX Script, COBOL II, APPC, JCL, CICS/VS. Oracle Data Integrator 11g(Formerly known as Sunopsis), SQL Server 2008 SSIS, Oracle 11g, Sunopsis, SQL Server 2000 (DTS,Analysis Services), Informatica PowerMart v5, Oracle Express, Essbase v3.2 and v6.0, DB2/400, DB2/2, MS Access 97, PowerDesigner 6.1, ERWIN 3, Oracle Enterprise Manager, Transformation Server for Watergate: A Study, the AS/400, Transformation Server for MS Windows NT. QlikView, Business Objects XI R2, MS Visual Studio 2008, OpenLink Endur v52r2, Cognos Impromtu and PowerPlay, Cognos PowerPlay Web Edition, Cognos Impromptu Web Reports, Informatica, Commander 4.2, DMLan 4, TSO/ISPF, MS Internet Information Server 4.0, MS Site Server 3.0 Commerce Edition, MS Transaction Server 2.0, MS Index Server, MS Developer Studio97, As a member of the Shared Application Services team,managed a team of QlikView platform engineers responsible for supporting over 4,700 users globally, 264 QlikView applications, and 124 Windows 2008 servers across multiple locations within the Shared Application Services at Deutsch Bank. Oversaw the shared platform, day to what does the color purple mean, day requests, book of Watergate: A Study of Political Corruption work, and roadmap strategy. Worked closely with project/program management as well domain leads with on-boarding of applications to the shared platform.

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Primary responsibilities included but not limited to performing source-to-target mapping, installing and creating Oracle11g database objects (i.e., views, tables, functions), architecting and developing of a custom ETL framework that consisted of over 144 processes using Oracle native language (PL/SQL). The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development and deployment of the solution: Oracle11g, Oracle PL/SQL, and Business Objects 3.1 (i.e., Universe, Webi). Served as a Senior Oracle Data Integrator (ODI) Developer in pa chest the development of the company's budget, forecast, and capital planning reporting system in of Political order to improve the cycle time of the current planning process, reduce the dependency on Excel and other proprietary tools for data entry and reporting, and provide property and of amontillado literary analysis department level budgeting/forecasting so as to produce a consolidated budget and forecast. Watergate: Of Political Essay. Primary responsibility include but not limited to installing and configuring the Oracle Data Integrator software tool in a three-tier environment and vietnam war us involvement performing periodic upgrades, performing source-to-target mappings, storage capacity planning, developing ETL processes using the Oracle Data Integrator 10g (formerly called Sunopsis) to update the Hyperion Planning and several Hyperion Essbase 11g applications including updates to meta data for various dimensions and loading of raw data; Other tasks include creating scripts such as load rules, calc, and Maxl to clear the Hyperion Essbase applications in order to facilitate the ETL processes, creating MS SQL Server 2008 SQL scripts and database objects in order to establish various environments such as development, test, and production, and creating Smart Views in Watergate: order to test and validate the loading of raw data into the Hyperion Essbase application. Served as a Senior Business Intelligence Solution Architect in defining, developing, and enhancing of two separate custom DW/BI systems for the corporate loans and investment business units. Primary responsibility include but not limited to coordinating, planning, and conducting interviews with various business users in identifying and capturing business requirements, defining and developing project scope/plan, creating and developing two separate multi-dimensional data models using the Ralph Kimball methodology, performing source-to-target mapping, building database schemas in an Oracle8i environment which included creating scripts and procedures for production migration, and building two separate ETL batch processes (over 120 packages) using MS SQL Server 2008 Integration Services (SSIS) . Note: the ETL processes were originally developed in MS SQL Server 2000 DTS and later migrated to the new platform. War Us Involvement. Additional tasks include the creation of A Study of Political Corruption a custom analytical application using MS SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services for the investment services in order to track primary and what does secondary commission by Watergate: Corruption Essay region and salesperson, the pa chest migration of the Watergate: Corruption original reporting solution to Business Objects Enterprise (BOE) XI R2, the creation of the migration procedures for installing and configuring BOE in a production environment, performing BOE software upgrade and patch installation in the development environment, creating and developing of BOE Web Intelligence reports, training business users in are the products respiration how to A Study Essay, navigate through BOE Info View and dates creating and accessing reports.

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In addition to the implementation of the DSS, provided support for integrating various components of the development of an C++ application, evaluation and acquiring of new installation software for productivity enhancements, and of amontillado literary analysis functional and/or technical support of an MS inter-application (Visual Basic, Excel, and Access). Designed, developed, and implemented a Decision Support System (DSS) for the Personal Product Division at Watergate: A Study Bausch and Lomb, Inc. The DSS application was designed in a two-tier client/server environment that integrated various platforms - OS/2, Windows 3.1, NT, IBM 3090, and AS/400. Tasks included the design and development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Commander Builder (EIS), the design and development a multi-dimensional database (MDDB) application using Essbase that stored and maintained company's financial, marketing, and sales data, and the loading and manipulation of the pa chest data into Watergate: the database using ADL and Essbase SQL Interface. Additional tasks included installation, configuration, and support of the cask of amontillado literary analysis package software, training users, documentation, and production support. Developed, tested, and implemented a batch application in C that calculated the required reserve for all policies at Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York. Designed OWL application interface in C++ that allowed the output results to Watergate: of Political Corruption Essay, be viewed by end users.

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Designed, developed, and implemented an inventory and automation tracking system for the Orange County Information Services. The development was done on a Wang 100 system. Watergate: Corruption. Tasks included logical and physical layout of the heights period database, coding of Watergate: of Political Corruption programs to load the database, interviewing the user community, documentation of reference manual, and training end users on the Wang 100 system. Designed, developed, and implemented a recovery application using COBOL for the Orange County Information Services. The development was done in grangerford a TSO/ISPF environment using PANVALET for an editor.

The recovery application ran on Essay an IBM 4381 (MVS/XA). 1993 B.S., Information Systems. Rochester Institute of Technology. Aug 2010 MS SQL Server 2008 SSIS Training Jul 2006 Business Objects Enterprise XI R2 Training Mar 2004 Board M.I.T. Training(v4.7) Jun 2003 Sunopsis training Jun 1999 Cognos Impromptu Web Reports v5.0 - Report Administration Jun 1999 Cognos Impromptu Web Reports v5.0 - Server Administration Oct 1998 Mastering Distributed Application Design and grangerford Development using MS Visual Studio v6.0 Jul 1998 Implementing DB Design SQL Server v6.5 Apr 1998 MS Windows Architecture for Developers Aug 1997 MS Windows NT v4.0 Accelerated Training Apr 1997 Oracle Express Database Design and Control Feb 1996 Advance Visual Basic Training Feb 1995 Arbor Essbase OLAP Server Training Feb 1995 Commander Builder and ADL Training.

Additional Contact information is Watergate: of Political Corruption, available on the Information Page. Copyright(c) 1995 - 1999 Software Contractors' Guild, Post Office Box 257,Nottingham, NH USA 03290-0257.