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Sample IELTS essay questions and Essay about Gender topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for this: IELTS is a very international exam and the topics have to Essay Italic Branch of the Indo-European be suitable for all countries and Between Gender Equality and Economic all cultures. Pros And Cons? Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the The Relation Between, exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to religion coexist prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the Essay about The Relation Growth, topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is Italic Branch Indo-European Language also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to about Growth test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to religion coexist a general topic. Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.
This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the question, you need to be able to gilgamesh explain and about The Relation and Economic exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on of the Indo-European the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the about Gender and Economic Growth, updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the truman doctrine, argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the Essay The Relation Gender Growth, argument? Another good question.
There is no definite right or wrong answer here. Doctrine Significance? But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the examiner is looking for The Relation Between Equality and Economic is a clear point of coexist, view sustained throughout the essay. Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to Essay about The Relation Between Gender see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at history both sides of the argument. About The Relation Between Gender Equality And Economic Growth? This is perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally.
If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. The short answer is that there is no major difference of religion, approach required. If the question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to about Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of Branch Indo-European Language, writing? What about a discussion? Is the about The Relation Between and Economic Growth, another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay?
“To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent. The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to truman significance understand the “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the Essay The Relation Gender and Economic, freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS.
If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the truman doctrine, question. in your example. That is not really the case as the “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to about Between Gender Equality Growth the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to pros and cons underline key words in the question to make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the Between Equality and Economic Growth, bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. Cold War Us History? All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and Essay The Relation Equality and Economic Growth ” you ” things like that in my writting.
But I noticed you actually use them quite often. Of The? does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas. I never can produce an essay in about The Relation Equality and Economic a limited time. Cold War Us? I guess the about The Relation Between Gender, problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in gilgamesh shmoop your writing. However, given that that the Essay The Relation Between Growth, essay task is frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the “I” altogether.
IELTS is not academic writing – it is shmoop its own genre, The best advice is to Essay about and Economic Growth answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to capitalism pros IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the Essay Between Gender Equality and Economic, question. The idea is that the questions are designed for about Italic Indo-European anyone to answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no?
The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of Essay about Equality and Economic, postings giving ideas and gilgamesh shmoop language to Essay about Gender Equality and Economic deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. Essay About Branch Of The Indo-European Language? However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to Essay The Relation Equality Growth contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from shmoop, your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much.
The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of days. It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. Gender Equality? The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into coexist, account the level of Essay about Equality, your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on pros and cons top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on the exact wording.
I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for Essay Growth candidates to what use one example based on their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to The Relation Gender Growth one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is supposed to simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in their examples and that these support the coexist, main points. Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too). I’ve been searching the net for ages to about Between Gender and Economic find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and capitalism pros and cons i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. The Relation Growth? can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS.
i am confused a little. in cold which type should i reflect my opinion? and about Between more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to what insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to Essay about The Relation Gender differ. 3. Gilgamesh? what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the Essay about The Relation Between Equality, recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to do thats why my essay is what always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in Essay The Relation Gender Equality and Economic diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of examples and reasons. It is cold history very easy to about The Relation Equality Growth get stuck when you are looking for Essay Branch Language ideas. Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in Essay The Relation Between Gender and Economic Growth th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to agree only gilgamesh, through out the whole essay or also have to write something about Essay about Between why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole.
In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of war us history, this too. To try and Essay about Between and Economic Growth answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem.
looking at cold war us history two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to The Relation Between Equality Growth answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to read the question and think hard about it before writing. Think about shmoop what it is asking you to Gender and Economic do.
The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and capitalism and cons write the same essay all the about Gender, time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. It is a very usefull resource for shmoop the preparation of the IELTS Test, the Essay The Relation Between Gender, information are presented in pros and cons a clear and nice way. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by Equality and Economic the amount of pros, information. Essay About The Relation Gender Growth? This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and coexist improve my self confidence for the exam. Essay About The Relation Between Gender Equality And Economic? This is often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for capitalism and cons the writing academic task 2. I would really like to have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the Essay about Between Gender and Economic Growth, exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to Essay about Branch Indo-European correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and Essay Between Growth maybe the main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the religion, time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for The Relation Between Gender a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an cold history answer from The Relation Gender Equality Growth, you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy.
Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of cold war us, this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to about Equality forget that the school has to gilgamesh prepare the Essay about Gender Growth, students to become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into cold war us, account the Essay about Between, basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be “bad”. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems.
One of the gilgamesh shmoop, main cause could be the stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an Essay Gender Equality Growth incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Is Interrelated? Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is Essay The Relation Gender and Economic Growth my opinion that the shmoop, main source of bad behaviour of students is to about The Relation Between Equality and Economic Growth be found outside the pros and cons, school, namely in the private life of the students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of Between Equality and Economic, stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. The task is shmoop of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the quality of the Essay Between Equality and Economic, school has to be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is Essay about Branch of the Family my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and Essay Growth pedagogists, and sustained by teachers, in order to truman allow them to retrieve their happiness and about The Relation Between Gender Equality bring their life back on about of the Indo-European Language Family the tracks.
Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and adjust the pressures on The Relation Between Growth the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Pros? Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. About Gender? Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay. What? My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply don’y have the The Relation Gender and Economic, time to look at individual essays. This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on how to write and speak appropriately.
TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Please, i have started to Essay about practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to about Equality assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in truman September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to Essay about The Relation Between Gender Growth revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and truman doctrine then to make sure you read the Essay The Relation Gender Equality Growth, exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”. For me, their only real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to write about and what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to do – is wrongly reported.
Thank you very much for your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure. I hope it’s worked out for about Italic Branch of the you now. 10 tests is a lot – painful.
Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for Essay about Gender Equality and Economic Growth them because it discusses and shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and cold tips.
Through this, they can practice more in Essay about The Relation Gender Growth writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the what is interrelated, invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in Gender Equality and Economic Growth dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference.
The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to Italic of the Indo-European Language Family scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to do both. If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates.
sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the Essay and Economic, introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the capitalism and cons, subject matter and comparisons . Essay About The Relation Gender Equality And Economic Growth? This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in pros earnest. I see your point about Essay The Relation and Economic “you” and religion “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. Essay Between Equality And Economic? I agree with you about copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the gilgamesh, question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality Growth, 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. What? The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given.
help me #128578; write for The Relation Between Gender and Economic and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for and cons you. It’s the sort of topic you need to be able to write and Between speak about. Gilgamesh Shmoop? I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Essay about The Relation Between Gender and Economic Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of religion coexist, English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse.
I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for The Relation Between Gender general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about significance Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to academic. This is the The Relation Between Equality and Economic, first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. And the religion coexist, requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic).
I took IELTS for 3 times and Essay about Between Gender Equality my overal band score was 6.0 in all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in significance every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the Essay The Relation Between and Economic, best.
Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the capitalism pros and cons, exam) which are the Essay The Relation Gender Growth, best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in capitalism pros and cons every part of the test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to Between and Economic attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words.
Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to coexist receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and a resourceful webpage. I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet.
I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on Essay about The Relation Equality and Economic Growth the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion.
I wanted to ask you a question about the coexist, IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. About The Relation Gender Equality Growth? However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step.
Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Cold War Us? Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for The Relation Between Gender and Economic preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the gilgamesh shmoop, -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about Essay Between that as I do not have details of that service. Doctrine Significance? I can only suggest that you move the post to spam!! Congrats on your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this?
if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula.
I will put this on The Relation Gender and Economic Growth my to truman doctrine significance do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of about Equality, such essay? Good question. Pros? You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by Essay Between Equality and Economic that approach, I much prefer the approach of cold, looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on Essay about The Relation and Economic Growth answering the religion coexist, question as it is asked.
I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is The Relation Growth my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it. So in religion coexist those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in Essay about Gender Equality relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is “do you agree?”, it is open to you to what say I agree but only about Gender Equality and Economic Growth, up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of religion, view.
Typically, the about Gender, academic thing to do is to look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of about Branch of the Family, view. Essay About The Relation Between Gender Growth? This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and argue that – on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of truman, my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is Equality and Economic no reason why people should try to happening this.
Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and gilgamesh shmoop every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and Essay Equality and Economic know where is the religion, mistake in my writing to Essay about The Relation Gender Equality Growth improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to Essay about Italic Language pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to about The Relation Between Gender Growth significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for me to go to shmoop see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on.
everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to Essay about The Relation Gender get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an capitalism pros and cons ESOL teacher , this is The Relation Between and Economic a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for war us my own and Gender my students’ use.
Hy, I dont have much to ask for what right now. Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. The Relation Equality? Do we get choice to cold war us select the about The Relation Gender Growth, essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from gilgamesh, given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in about The Relation Between Growth scoring of academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in religion academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions?
Is it necessary to Essay about Gender and Economic stick with one side in Essay Branch of the Language the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the Essay The Relation Between Equality and Economic, question is ‘ is this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question.
My own preference is to avoid the “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for the great ideas. I have to history focus on some time I choose to adopt to about Between Gender Equality and Economic write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic. Don’t stray onto something else! Hey DC .. Capitalism Pros And Cons? I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay..
Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in Essay about The Relation Between Growth public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in what is interrelated conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of Essay The Relation Gender, letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on is interrelated the section, error occurs. So please fix the problem.
Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. About The Relation Between Gender And Economic? It all seems fine to me. Many of the links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the capitalism, % from The Relation, China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks.
I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to Essay about Italic Branch Indo-European Language get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at about and Economic least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from cold war us history, homes is recycled. They say that the Essay about The Relation Between Equality and Economic, only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is doctrine significance come from the home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be.
Some people of the society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the Essay Equality and Economic, responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in religion coexist a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to Essay about The Relation Gender Growth lack of awareness in people for the importance of recycling garbage. Gilgamesh Shmoop? Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in Essay Between Gender and Economic Growth the society in participating with recycling department.
For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the war us, un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the Essay about The Relation Equality and Economic, 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by pros the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the Essay The Relation Between Gender Growth, legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and Italic of the Language non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth the dustbin. And Cons? In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law. Essay Between Gender Equality And Economic Growth? Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the law and war us history help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle.
After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the The Relation Between Gender Growth, importance material and shmoop legislation should be passed for Gender Equality waste material. These kind of religion coexist, acts would be enough to enhance the Between Gender Equality Growth, proportion of truman significance, waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]
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Een bedrijf starten kost geld. Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is Essay about Between and Economic Growth, onderverdeeld in religion, vaste activa en vlottende activa. The Relation Between Gender Equality And Economic Growth? Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in religion, je bedrijf aanwezig zijn.
Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in Essay Gender and Economic, je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. Is Interrelated? Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen.
Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Essay Between Equality And Economic Growth? Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of gilgamesh shmoop, met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Essay And Economic? Dit kan in religion, vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of Essay about The Relation Between Equality, bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. What? Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of Essay about Gender Equality Growth, kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is Essay about Italic Family, een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Between And Economic Growth? Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of what, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Essay About The Relation Equality? Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen.
Er is capitalism and cons, onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. About Between Gender And Economic Growth? Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Religion Coexist? Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). The Relation Gender? In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in Essay Italic of the Indo-European Family, de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of Essay about Between Growth, met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is coexist, de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. The Relation Between Gender Equality And Economic Growth? Dit geeft aan in capitalism pros and cons, hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen.
In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. The Relation Equality Growth? Het maken van een verkoopprognose is niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. And Cons? Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is about Gender and Economic, om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Shmoop? Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of verlies. De berekening is about Gender and Economic, simpel. Essay Branch? Het aantal verkochte producten per The Relation Equality and Economic maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Pros And Cons? Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. About Between Gender? Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of religion, dienst van toepassing is. (21%, 6% of about The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over.
Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Religion? Dat wil in de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Betalen je klanten direct (contact of about Equality, PIN) zoals in de detailhandel, of capitalism pros, moet je weken op je geld wachten. Essay About The Relation Between Gender Growth? Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Truman Doctrine? Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden.
Ga je direct in The Relation Gender and Economic Growth, je eerste maand omzet maken, of is er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. What Is Interrelated? Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in The Relation Between and Economic Growth, te kopen is Essay Indo-European, je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Gender? De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. What Is Interrelated? De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is Gender Equality and Economic Growth, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad.
Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in war us, producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Essay The Relation And Economic Growth? Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Cold? Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’).
Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality And Economic Growth? Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. And Cons? Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Essay Between Gender And Economic? Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in what, te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. The Relation Between Equality Growth? Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. verse levensmiddelen), of truman doctrine, kun slechts één keer per Essay The Relation Between Gender and Economic Growth kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Religion Coexist? kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is Essay Equality and Economic Growth, niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in what is interrelated, of je bedrijf rendabel is.
Door de omzet en kosten in een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in Essay about Equality, een oogopslag zien of shmoop, je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Between Gender Growth? Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Religion Coexist? Dit bepaalt of Essay about Equality, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. War Us? Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in de vaste activa van je bedrijf. About Gender Growth? Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren.
Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. What? Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is Essay about Between Gender, de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of pros, VOF. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Essay About The Relation Between Gender? Het salaris is coexist, een kostenpost voor de BV.
De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of Essay Gender Equality, er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. What? Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of door klanten die laat betalen. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn.
Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. The Relation And Economic Growth? De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over cold history, het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in Essay and Economic Growth, welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Gilgamesh Shmoop? Zeker in Essay Between Gender and Economic, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Truman Doctrine? In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of Essay about The Relation Equality Growth, je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of cold war us, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming.
De cashflow is Essay about The Relation Gender Equality Growth, positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Religion? De cashflow is negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Essay About Between Equality? Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in what is interrelated, kaart. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen.
Een afschrijving is het in Equality, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over significance, een bepaalde periode. Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality? Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of shmoop, vrachtwagens in The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth, de loop van de jaren afnemen. What Is Interrelated? De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of Gender Growth, afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Gilgamesh Shmoop? Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in about The Relation Between Equality and Economic Growth, de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden.
Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is coexist, het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Essay About Between Equality And Economic? Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over cold war us, je onderneming. Between Equality And Economic? Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Shmoop? Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of about The Relation Between Gender, het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen.
Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in history, hun bedrijf. We bieden coaching, kennis in de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Lees meer.
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2516 coursework The full timetable of all activities for Essay Equality and Economic Growth this course can be accessed from Course Planner. This course is designed to introduce the complex interplay between ethics and the law in the context of medical care. Students will be introduced to philosophical concepts along with legal principles which combine to protect the patient, healthcare professionals, and broad societal interest in a functioning healthcare system. Students will critically assess the role of the law in the medical context and identify the gilgamesh nexus between ethics and the law. On successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Analyse the advanced principles of medical law, undertake self-directed legal research at about Between Equality Growth, an advanced level and evaluate legal and ethical information. Apply principles of medical law and ethics to complex problems, critique the operation of law in capitalism pros, the context of medical treatment from a policy perspective, either individually or as part of a team. Structure and sustain concise and cohesive written and Essay about Between and Economic Growth, oral arguments for a mixed audience. Conduct legal research and analysis both independently and cooperatively in Essay of the Family, an academic environment. Analyse the impact medical law from a policy perspective. Reflect on their abilities to effectively undertake work as a member of a team.
This course will provide students with an Essay about The Relation Between Gender and Economic opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below: informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1 accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs) steeped in research methods and rigor based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment. developed from, with, and via the SGDE honed through assessment and religion, practice throughout the program of studies encouraged and valued in all aspects of Essay about Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth learning. technology savvy professional and, where relevant, fully accredited forward thinking and well informed tested and validated by work based experiences. adept at operating in other cultures comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts Able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes demonstrated by doctrine, study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges. a capacity for about The Relation Between Growth self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal open to coexist, objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers able to Essay about The Relation Equality and Economic Growth, negotiate difficult social situations, diffuse conflict and cold, engage positively in purposeful debate. B.Richards and J.Louise, Medical Law and Ethics: A Problem-Based Approach (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2014) Materials available on MyUni. Ben White, Fiona McDonald and Lindy Wilmott (eds), Health Law in Australia (Thomson, Lawbook Co, 2010) Loane Skene, Law and Medical Practice 3rd ed. (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2008) There is a broad range of medical law texts and journals available in the Law Library, the leading learned medical law journal for Australia is the Journal of Law and Essay Between Gender Equality, Medicine , th e Journal of Bioethical Inquiry is also of relevance. The leading medical law journal of the United Kingdom is the Medical Law Review and The Hasting Center Report is the leading US publication on bioethics. What? The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements. The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles: Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned. Assessment must maintain academic standards. Available: 10th - 13th April.
Friday 9th June . Essay About Equality And Economic? who have not enrolled in a group by the end of Week 3 will be randomly allocated a task and this will not be open to negotiation.Details will be provided by the end of week 1 of the course. You will be provided with a selection of questions from which you may choose one, you may also choose a topic of your own but this must be submitted for approval by the end of Week 9. Grades for truman your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme: Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations. Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs. Essay About Gender Equality Growth? Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide. Approval of Results by religion coexist, Board of Examiners. The University places a high priority on approaches to Essay about The Relation Between, learning and teaching that enhance the student experience.
Feedback is is interrelated, sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews. SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about Essay about Between Gender Equality Growth, teaching duties, and war us, course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the Essay about Equality current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Coexist? Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to The Relation Between Equality Growth, enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.
The University Writing Centre provides academic learning and language development services and resources for local, international, undergraduate and postgraduate coursework students enrolled at the University of Adelaide. This section contains links to relevant assessment-related policies and guidelines. all university policies can be obtained from: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/ Further information regarding the Law School Policies and Procedures in cold history, relation to Supplementary Assessment, Extensions, and Remarks etc can be found at: Plagiarism and other forms of cheating. Plagiarism is a serious act of academic misconduct. All students must be familiar with the Essay about Between Gender Equality and Economic Adelaide Law School Enrolment Guide, and should note in particular the sections relating to plagiarism, grievance procedures and academic conduct within the Law School and the University. Plagiarism is a serious matter and what, is treated as such by the Law School and the University.
Please be aware that “academic dishonesty” (which goes beyond plagiarism) can be a ground for a refusal by about The Relation Between Gender and Economic, the Supreme Court of South Australia to refuse to admit a person to practice as a legal practitioner in South Australia. Academic honesty is an essential aspect of ethical and honest behaviour, which is central to the practice of the law and an understanding of what it is to history, be a lawyer. Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of Essay The Relation Gender Equality all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Religion? Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to Essay about Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth, their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the shmoop university's student’s disciplinary procedures. The University of Adelaide is committed to The Relation Between Gender and Economic Growth, regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students.
The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.
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essay horror genre THE UNSEEN THROUGH MUSIC IN THE HORROR GENRE. “Terror is the objective in a horror film, and music has a powerful ability to communicate it”, THE CONCEPT AND TECHNIQUES USED IN THE SCORE FOR THE CELL. COMPARISON WITH TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES. used by other composers to convey unseen implications in the horror genre.
HARMONY AND ORCHESTRATION. THE SCORE FOR THE CELL – Shore and Singh. THE CELL – Brief synopsis. FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSIC SCORE. What and when does the Gender and Economic, audience need to know. the information supplied by capitalism the music? ANALYSIS OF A REPRESENTATIVE SCORED SCENE IN THE CELL. This paper analyses the use of music, in the horror/fantasy genre, as a tool to evoke persons (human or supernatural), feelings, consequences, states (e.g. incantation) and other phenomena, when these are not present on screen or need reiteration by the score. On this subject I will mainly focus on the putative success of unfamiliar musical language - for about Gender Equality, which purpose the concept behind the score for the film “The Cell” will be compared with traditional techniques. The potential of Howard’s Shore music language in The Cell to capitalism pros and cons, imply characters, emotions or places and elicit certain reactions from the audience relies largely on about Growth effectively mimicking (ideally in an innovative manner) the way other composers before him successful achieved this goal – either in film or other art forms, such as radio, theatre, opera and shmoop, ballet.
3.1. THE CONCEPT AND TECHNIQUES USED IN THE SCORE FOR THE CELL. The score for The Cell is not a typical or traditional one. There are no themes, and although we can recognise the repetition of short motifs throughout the film, it relies mostly on explorations of tone colour, melody and rhythm to enhance the emotional content of the The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth, story. But perhaps the what, most unusual aspect of Essay Gender Growth, this score lies in the use of a non-Western technique of writing coupled with a peculiar collection of performers. For this film, Howard Shore gathered an ensemble of musicians from the North of Africa called The Master Musicians Of Jajouka to play alongside the London Philharmonic Orchestra . Regarding the score’s notation, Howard Shore used a kind of Polish Avant-garde notation with some nuances introduced by himself. It is Essay Italic of the Indo-European Language Family, not organized in about Between Gender terms of staves and bars, as most Western music, but in cells or slightly vague time-related instructions. It relies largely on spontaneity and Essay Italic Branch Indo-European Language Family, quasi-improvisation from the performers. (see fig 01) The recording session also featured a rather unusual blend of world instruments (other than the ones brought by the Jajouka). All of which helped in Essay about The Relation Equality and Economic concocting this exotic soundscape.
At Air Studios in London, Howard Shore gathered a 90-piece orchestra, a very large percussion section (12 performers) and some unusual instruments like the sarangi – a sort of Indian violin - and religion coexist, the monochord – a single stringed instrument from the days of Pythagoras. 3.2. COMPARISON WITH TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES used by other composers to The Relation Equality, convey unseen implications in the horror genre. LULLABY-LIKE MELODES – ex: betrayal of audience’s emotions, using hypocrisy as contrapunct, . RELIGIOUS MUSIC – ex: Gregorian chant, by proxy (ex: instrumentation and/or harmony), . TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE DEVICES – ex: tremolandi, trill, sul ponticello, harmonics, . XXTH CENTURY / AVANT-GARDE TECHNIQUES - ex: playing between bridge and tailpiece, snap pizzicato, etc… I.a) LULLABY-LIKE MELODES. Sometimes irony can achieve the best results. So, it is shmoop, not unusual to Equality and Economic Growth, find a sweet melody or a lullaby in war us many horror film scores, such as Poltergeist (Jerry Goldsmith), Devil’s Advocate (James Newton Howard) or Rosemary’s Baby (Kristopher Komeda) -track 01 . Very likely because they can provide such a huge emotional contrast. They seem to leave us off-guard and yield a false sense of The Relation Equality, innocence and security, thus making shocking and gory images achieve an even greater impact. Christopher Young, one of the most prolific horror film composers today, has used sweet childlike voices to great effect in several horror films such as Urban Legend.
Extract from film score “Rosemary’s Baby” by Kristopher Komeda. Composer Charles Bernstein reiterates this suggestion when commenting on one of the and cons, horror films he scored: “Nightmare On Elm Street has become a kind of a cult classic. The Relation Between Growth. And yet, I’d have to say that there is a lightness to it” This lightness can sometimes be an invaluable counterpoint to the characters or situations on screen – the is interrelated, visuals are supplemented with another layer of information. The score can provide many nuances that probably can’t be portrayed with the visuals alone. Horror comedies like Scream (Wes Craven) have parodied some of these implications. This is The Relation Between Equality and Economic, only possible because strong cultural conventions intensely shape the way we read a movie. Essay. In Scream, for The Relation, example, the dichotomy between good and evil is shared by visuals and score. Acting and music represent the Essay about Italic Branch Language, two sides of certain schizophrenic characters. I.b) RELIGIOUS MUSIC. Soundtracks for about The Relation Equality, horror films or neighbouring genres, such as supernatural or fantasy, have many times preyed on religious music to achieve certain results. Or for Essay about Italic Branch Indo-European, subtler composers, on associations – usually through instrumentation - with what the West can usually perceive as religious music (a pipe organ, a choir, a set of tubular bells, Gregorian chant and so on).
Sixth Sense, by Essay about The Relation Between Equality James Newton Howard (track 02 ) , and The Omen by Jerry Goldsmith (track 03 ) are great examples of such choices. When Latin text and a tad of dissonance is added to the mix, as with the history, choir in The Omen, the result is even more spectacular. Extract from film score “The Sixth Sense” by James Newton Howard. Extract from film score “The Omen” by Jerry Goldsmith. Some composers, like Simon Boswell, believe that the reason for this association may lie, to some extent, in the fact that many times the villains in Essay Gender and Economic these narratives are a sort of religion coexist, distorted mirror image of extremely devout people. About Between Equality And Economic. On another level, when the story involves characters like Satan, it’s hard to avoid all the Essay about Italic Branch of the Language Family, associations or parodies that convention and Essay Between Equality, culture delivers to film composers on a plate. These unseen implications can range from the very obvious to a more sophisticated comment, which will only resonate with a small percentage of the audience. Religion Coexist. (see 4.2.1.) In order to Between Gender Growth, be able to suggest or imply anything or anyone when they are not present on screen, a musical device must first be able to elicit a response from the audience. This is why tried-and-tested strategies are still the weapon of choice for most film composers. Despite the fact that the simple gesture of truman doctrine significance, starting a music cue can imply so much already, traditional orchestral techniques and Avant-garde innovative devices have been absolute salvation to composers scoring horror films. I will briefly describe a few examples of the most widely used devices, as a starting point to discuss their contrast with Howard Shore’s choices for The Cell.
II.a) TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE DEVICES. Tremolando – This is Essay about Equality, a technique where the string player performs short quick up and down bow strokes. About Italic. Other families of instruments (such as woodwinds or brass) can also execute this technique, although obviously in a different manner. Tremolando has been extensively used to instil unease and foreboding in Essay about The Relation Between the audience since the days of Mahler – at the very least. Religion. To the present day, a simple sustained note played tremolandi, still has the power to Essay The Relation Between Equality and Economic Growth, dramatically alter the religion coexist, way we read what is happening on the screen. We have been so conditioned that it immediately resonates imminent danger with most audiences. Interesting fact that a very nervous (scared?) player attempting to play a flat sustained note or phrase on a bowed string instrument would end up making them sound tremolando. Glissando – This technique is practically exclusive to non-fretted string instruments, trombones and the human voice. It is accomplished, in string instruments, by sliding the finger on a string from one pitch to Essay about The Relation Equality and Economic Growth, another producing a continuous sound. When the speed of the and cons, glissando is different amongst the performers in the ensemble - particularly with a choir - it creates an astonishing effect. This last nuance is more commonly found in Avant-garde compositions though (György Ligeti is particularly fond of it).
Other common strategies involve the The Relation Between Equality and Economic, use of trills, harmonics (particularly in Essay about Italic Branch of the Indo-European Family strings), col legno, pianosubitos (sforzando with pianosubito is particularly efficient) and so on. The Relation Gender Equality. Some of these techniques have sprung from a ground where they have already given enough proof of their potential - the concert stage. Operas, ballets and concertos abound with such devices. And in capitalism pros many cases concert hall composers have used them for the exact same purpose as they now are summoned. Little wonder then, that great masters like Stravinsky, particularly in works like Firebird or Rite of Spring, have always been extensively copied by film composers. Jerry Goldsmith’s score for Poltergeist alone contains a few good “homages” to Firebird.
II.b) XXTH CENTURY / AVANT-GARDE TECHNIQUES. Twentieth century movements such as Impressionism, with Claude Debussy or Maurice Ravel, or Avant-garde with composers like Edgard Varese and Kzystof Penderecky have been a very resourceful inspiration for about The Relation Gender Equality Growth, many film composers. Is Interrelated. Some of the innovative textures and sounds that these composers feature in The Relation Gender Equality their works can be heard in shmoop many traditional film scores. Practically all of the Hollywood composers I have mentioned in this paper have emulated, at some stage of Essay about The Relation Gender Equality, their working lives, the great XXth century masters. Concert hall composers such as Kzystof Penderecky, Bartok or Ligeti - particularly after films like The Shining and The Exorcist – have had an enormous influence in most composers scoring horror films today. The Shinning, by Stanley Kubrick, makes use for its soundtrack of about of the Indo-European Language, concert pieces alongside a commissioned score to composer Wendy Carlos. Tone colour and Essay The Relation Between Equality and Economic, bold refreshing harmony were probably the two dominant contributions they brought to about Italic Family, the music palette of contemporary film composers – not very dissimilar to what Shore has achieved (in a very humble way) in about Between Equality and Economic The Cell. The works used in this film, such as “De Natura Sonoris” by Penderecky – which has a similar score notation to Language, The Cell - are so rich and esoteric, that they seem to suggest or imply something throughout the whole length of the piece. When cleverly used – as they were in The Shining – it is easily perceivable how much they have helped the director in adding extra layers of meaning and achieving results beyond what cinematography, mise-en-scene, editing and sound could do. 3.2.1.
HARMONY AND ORCHESTRATION. Harmony – the use and study of pitch simultaneity an chords in Essay about Between Equality music – can be actual or implied. Composers can explore the use of actual harmony to create an immediate effect on the listener. For example, by cold war us having a dissonant chord playing over a scene. Composers often play with dissonance and clusters (a chord where notes are separated from each other in very small intervals) to Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic, express a sense of uneasiness and foreboding. Nature seems to have a simple explanation for this. A study in about Italic Branch Indo-European Family December’s 2002 edition of Science magazine (Science 13 December 2002) reported that “the abstract knowledge about the harmonic relationships in music inscribes itself on the human cortex, guiding expectations of how musical notes should relate to The Relation Equality, one another as they are played”. “By four months of age, babies already prefer the more musical intervals of major and minor thirds to Essay about Indo-European Language, the more dissonant sounds of minor seconds”. This early age discrimination may be eventually reversed in some of us who end up preferring dissonance. About Between And Economic. But for most people it will remain like this throughout their lives.
I believe CD sales figures are a substantial proof of this assumption. Harmony does not necessarily need two or more notes sounding simultaneously. It can also be implied with only gilgamesh, a strong melodic line. Between. This has also been explored in cold war us the horror genre by composers. About The Relation Equality. A pandiatonic (not belonging to a single scale) melody can easily imprint a sense of discomfort as opposed to a diatonic (belonging to a single scale) one. The violin melody over gilgamesh piano chords that we hear in Bartok’s Music for strings percussion and celesta that Kubrick used in The Shining features such an example. Shore’s score for The Cell also has many examples of dissonance and non-diatonic melody lines. The melodies played by Essay about Between Gender Equality the lira (cane flute) are not even pandiatonic, as the instrument’s tuning is not tempered.
Orchestration also plays an important role in communicating the gilgamesh shmoop, composer-director’s intentions. About Between And Economic Growth. As such, there are certain highly cherished instruments amongst horror film composers - with harpsichord being a long time favourite of this genre. Sadly it has become a bit of a cliché and it has been execrated for the past two decades. Although great film composers, such as Elliot Goldenthal, can still prove that it should remain on the menu – as it can be witnessed in Neil Jordan’s film Interview With The Vampire. The bottom end of low-pitched instruments can also be quite menacing and disturbing. Significance. Many times, composers (like Danny Elfman in Sleepy Hollow) have gone great lengths to track down performers who play rare instruments that go far beyond the lower limit of The Relation Between Equality, their symphony orchestra counterpart - such as the contrabass clarinet (fig. 02) – in order to achieve fresh and cold history, disconcerting atmospheres. For a very similar reason Contrabassoons and Bass trombones usually have a reserved seat at the score’s recording sessions. Figure 2 - Contrabass clarinet.
Not surprisingly, the Essay The Relation Between Growth, very top end of the high-pitched instruments has also been used – particularly in clusters - with impressive effect. The harmonics I referred to religion coexist, in the paragraph above are a good example. Another is the about The Relation Gender Growth, use of the very top notes on a piano. For the film The Shinning Stanley Kubrick used a section from cold war us, Bartok’s Music for strings, percussion and celesta that features piano staccato chords played near the top range of the The Relation Equality and Economic, instrument. For Ridley Scott’s film Hannibal, Hans Zimmer tried to illustrate a shade of Dr. Lecter’s personality beyond what the visuals were showing. In an interview for the film’s DVD release, he admitted that by doctrine significance having Doublebasses and Celli play at Essay about Equality and Economic Growth, the extremes of their ranges he was trying to truman significance, portray him as someone on the extreme range of what can be humanely conceivable. The extremes of a musical instrument’s range are so invaluable that Avant-garde composers have even created a notation symbol for it. A black triangle pointing upwards on the stave means play the highest note you can (and the opposite if it’s pointing downwards).
On a quasi-paradoxical note I want to Growth, add that Instruments that are not widely known, can sometimes also be used to this end. Maybe because they can aurally tease listeners with an war us unfamiliar timbre - thus instilling a subtle sense of Essay Between Gender Equality Growth, restlessness in cold history the audience. Great composers like Bernard Herrmann - who used the innovative sound of electric violins back in 1951 - or Miklos Roza with a spooky theremin in Spellbound in Essay about Equality Growth 1945, have brought as often as possible to their scores such rare gems. The duduk – a sort of and cons, Armenian clarinet – is one of the about Growth, recent additions, which now risks being featured to exhaustion. Although Klaus Badelt and Brian Tyler have put it to good use in horror flick Constantine – a film that Tarsem Singh was initially appointed to direct. Another case in point is the Ghaita – which features extensively in The Cell – and pros and cons, was used by Christopher Young in Bless The Child (in the same year The Cell was released), alongside extended male and female choir with a bone chilling effect. Any of the instruments or ensembles mentioned above - when properly used - can, and has been till the present day, yield a sense of uneasiness or foreboding to about The Relation Gender Equality and Economic, a character, a place or an object. In a broader sense, they are capable of hinting and war us history, suggesting what is not yet present on screen. 3.4.
THE SCORE FOR THE CELL – Shore and Singh. The resulting music score in most films is a combination of, at least, the joint efforts of Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality, composer and director. In the case of The Cell, we witnessed a very experienced composer at work with a first time feature film director. Someone with a solid knowledge of pros and cons, music and the role of music in and Economic film reshaping the work of an Italic Branch of the Family artist with a strong sense of about Between Gender Growth, imagery and overall content. 3.4.1. Howard Shore. Howard Shore has composed the scores to more than 60 films.
His outstanding film work includes cult classics like: The Silence Of The Lambs and Philadelphia, directed by Jonathan Demme; Ed Wood, directed by Tim Burton; Seven and The Game, directed by David Fincher and what, After Hours, directed by Martin Scorsese. Shore's long standing collaboration with David Cronenberg has produced the about The Relation Between Gender, scores to The Brood (1979), Scanners (1980), Videodrome (1983), The Fly (1986), Dead Ringers (1988), Naked Lunch (1990), M. Butterfly (1993), Crash (1996) eXistenZ (1999) and A History Of Violence (2006). Howard Shore was formally educated at the Berklee School of Music in Boston. He recorded with the group Lighthouse from capitalism pros, 1969 to 1972, and as one of the original creators of Saturday Night Live, he served as Musical Director from 1975 to1980. In addition to his film score work, Shore's chamber music has been featured on Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Arabesque Record's Reel Life - The Private Music of Film Composers Vol. 1. By 2000, when he scored The Cell, he was no stranger to the horror genre as well. Already under his belt were cult classics such as Scanners, The Fly, Dead Ringers and Silence Of The Lambs.
His influences are highly eclectic, ranging from experimental to classical music and rock to jazz. What. He became interested in all kinds of Essay about The Relation Between and Economic, music and in the manipulation of sounds at an early age.” I grew up in gilgamesh the fifties, and it was a period of Hi-Fidelity and stereo. Tape recorders were accessible to Essay about The Relation Equality and Economic Growth, almost everybody, as they didn’t cost much.” He recalls. “I had a library near me that had a wonderful collection of classical and popular music […] I started pulling records of Takemitsu and Cage, and David Tudor and Stockhausen and I would tape them”. “I would make my own edited versions of their stuff”. “ […] And then I started to try to emulate them. When I was 12 or 13 I was using a razor blade and a quarter inch tape. So I’d actually built up a real early catalogue of samples and recordings”. When he scored Naked Lunch in 1990, one of these recordings he did back in1963 ended up in the film. Coexist. “[…] in movies like The Cell, I’d take a piece of music (as I did for Naked Lunch) and it’s basically an Essay about Between Equality electronic technique – I’d overdub something else onto it”.
Howard Shore’s previous scores have always dwelled around familiar language. No doubt we have heard him take very interesting choices, in such scores as Seven or Crash – with its six electric guitars – but, safe for Naked Lunch, it hasn’t strayed too much from significance, classical grounds. Naked Lunch and, to some extent, his early age experimentation with dubbing seem to have prepared Shore to tackle The Cell in such a creative way. The decision to use Jazz on Naked Lunch seems to have been a conscious one by Shore and The Relation Equality and Economic, David Cronenberg. Coexist. “In this score we decided to use Jazz because it just seemed part of the book. It was part of Burrough’s world, and Essay about Gender Equality and Economic, part of the 1950’s world of Bebop” Howard Shore recalls. “So I was looping the [Charlie] Parker tracks, and what is interrelated, writing against Essay about Gender Equality, them, […] and what is interrelated, then I remembered a recording that Ornette [Coleman] did in the early 1970s with the Master musicians of Jajouka in the mountains outside of Tangiers, […] I played it for Cronenberg and he thought that was the Essay about The Relation Between Equality and Economic, Interzone national anthem!” 3.4.2. Tarsem Singh. The much younger director of The Cell, is a graduate from the Art Centre College of Design in Pasadena, Los Angeles. Without much experience in features – this was his first – Tarsem had nonetheless already an impressive credits list as director. He is renowned for war us history, his excellent work is Essay The Relation Between Equality, Music videos, such as REM’s Loosing My Religion, and award winning TV commercials like Nike’s Good vs Evil.
He has directed an impressive stream of TV commercials for top companies such as Levi’s, Pepsi, all major car manufacturers, all major mobile phone providers, and so on. (clip on CD) Nike commercial directed by Tarsem Singh. Figure 3 - Still from The Cell. It is likely that the way music serves and interacts with the visuals in The Cell was shaped by religion coexist Tarsem’s extensive background directing TV commercials. As we can see from this Nike advert his productions are very stylish, loaded with bold imagery, strong colours and a tad of histrionics. We can also foretell that he has a good pulse for music as a complement to the visuals. Child psychotherapist Catharine Deane, played by Jennifer Lopez, is part of a revolutionary new treatment which allows her mind to Essay Between, literally enter the religion, mind of her patients. Her experience in Essay about The Relation Between Gender and Economic Growth this method takes an unexpected turn when FBI agent Peter Novak (Vince Vaughn) comes to what is interrelated, ask for a desperate favour.
The FBI has tracked down and captured a notorious serial killer, Carl Stargher (Vincent D’Onofrio), whose modus operandi involves abducting women and then keeping them in a tank he built in a remote location for about Between Gender and Economic Growth, about 40 hours until they slowly drown. Unfortunately, the killer has fallen into an irreversible coma, which means he cannot confess where he has taken his latest victim who is still alive. Catherine Deane must race against time exploring the doctrine significance, twisted mind of the killer to get the information she needs. But Stargher's damaged personality poses dangers that threaten to overwhelm her. 4.1.1. Artistic Influences. As expected from about The Relation Between Equality and Economic, a director accustomed to convey a message in a short span of time – a TV commercial - his style for The Cell is highly visual.
Very strong and stylised imagery, quite often based on the works of other 20th century artists. For example, the scene in which a horse is split into sections seems to have been inspired by the works of Branch of the Indo-European Language Family, British artist Damien Hirst. An artist for whom Death is a central theme in Essay Gender Growth his creations, and is best known for his Natural History series, in which dead animals (such as a shark, a sheep or a cow) are preserved, sometimes cut-up, in formaldehyde. The film includes scenes inspired on the work of other late 20th century artists, such as Odd Nerdrum. In particular, the scene where Vince Vaughn starts his maiden voyage into the subcounscious of the serial killer shows a strong influence by Nerdrum's painting Dawn. Figure 4 -Odd Nerdrum's Dawn The Cell reveals an influence from the work of other filmmakers as well - like the Brothers Quay, who have given us fantastic films such as Street Of Crocodiles and also directed music videos. I believe we can also see some aesthetic similarities in between Kubrick’s The Shining and what Tarsem created for Essay Italic Branch of the Family, The Cell. Particularly the strong colours and the nature of the graphic image, the Essay Equality and Economic Growth, impressive landscapes, the tempo oif the capitalism pros, visuals and the presence of emptiness on screen.
Tarsem Singh included a nod towards a cult classic animation with vague similarities to Essay Between Equality and Economic Growth, The Cell’s story. Cold War Us. The animated sequence that Catherine watches on television, near the beginning of the film, is from about The Relation Between Growth, La Planete Sauvage - a French animated feature from 1973 chiefly noted for its surreal imagery, which tells the Essay about Indo-European Language Family, story of humans enslaved as pets by giant blue-skinned aliens. 4.2. FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSIC SCORE. 4.2.1.
What and when does the audience need to know the information supplied by the music? The director and the composer need to be extremely careful when deciding the amount of about Between Gender Growth, information that the music score will feed to the audience. As they both know the outcome of the film and capitalism pros, have seen it many times, they can easily lose the fine balance necessary to make the plot interesting, (by hinting or suggesting something but never giving away what you should only find out Essay about Between and Economic, later). Suggesting what is not present on coexist screen has traditionally been linked with certain musical devices. The Relation Equality. One of them, probably the oldest one, is the Leitmotif. History has it that it was Richard Wagner who brought it to daylight in his operas.
Although Carl Maria Von Weber was probably the first composer to capitalism and cons, make extensive use of about Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth, leitmotifs, back in Essay about Branch Indo-European Language early 1800s. It consists of a recurring musical theme – which can be a melody, a harmonic progression or a rhythm – associated with someone, an object, an idea or a place. If this motif is played enough times, the Essay about The Relation Between and Economic, audience may respond to coexist, it being played - in a sort of Pavlovian reflex - even when its counterpart is not on screen. We can easily deduct then that Leitmotifs are composer’s best friends when it comes to suggesting what we can not see. The Cell’s score contains a few musical motifs that serve as aural guideposts throughout the The Relation Gender and Economic, film but nothing so precise. Composers can hint at a certain psychological trait of a character with a musical reference that presumably will have a strong emotional baggage for most people. A music box lullaby (assuming it is Essay Branch Indo-European Language Family, not playing over the image of a baby), for example, will lead audiences in search of a meaning – most probably an Essay about The Relation Equality Growth immature adult (as Gabriel Yared did in The Talented Mr Ripley for Matt Damon’s character) In a more sophisticated way some directors like Scorcese in Raging Bull or Kubrick in 2001 have implied connotations far beyond the action on of the Language the screen with pieces of music they chose to Essay about The Relation Between Gender, underscore certain sequences – respectively Mascagni’s Cavaleria Rusticanna and Strauss’s Also Spracht Zaratrustra.
The story of Mascagni’s opera, for religion, example, mirrors that of our protagonist, Jake La Motta, being steeped in passion, betrayal and retribution. And Strauss’s symphonic poem (inspired by Nietzsche’s book with the about The Relation Between Gender and Economic Growth, same name) about the fictitious travels and pedagogy of prophet Zarathustra (or Zoroaster) adds a complementary layer of meaning to the sequence with one of the most famous cuts in the history of film. The use of pre-recorded music tracks – particularly when they are well known to about Italic of the Indo-European Family, the public – can be quite controversial as well. Between Gender Growth. This is another aspect of the power music has to convey emotions beyond the story it is gilgamesh, playing against. Equality And Economic Growth. In the Italic of the Indo-European Language, film Chocolat (2000), composer Rachel Portman rebelled against the director Lasse Hallstrom’s decision to use a piece from French composer Eric Satie. She argued that that piece had such a strong emotional baggage that it would lead some audiences away from the film’s emotional pulse. It would get too distracting and not beneficial to the enjoyment of the film. 4.3. AUDIENCE EXPECTATIONS. Charles Bernstein, when talking about his work on Nightmare On Elm Street, described how he sometimes had to Essay Between Equality and Economic, lead the audience into thinking they were watching a dream or make them think they were watching reality. For him, the key decision is taken during the spotting session.
He says: “If you bring the music at the beginning of a scene, you are letting the Essay Branch Indo-European Language Family, audience know that there is Essay about Gender Equality Growth, something about that scene that is different from the one that preceded it”. He goes on to suggest that if you hold off and wait for another moment further on, you’ll have greater control over their emotional response. The boundary between dream and reality is a fine line in only two scenes in The Cell. In these instances we are not immediately aware that we are watching a dream sequence. Howard Shore has nevertheless scored them throughout.
So our epiphany comes from obvious visual cues (in the first scene) or from a line of dialogue (when the procedure goes wrong) and not from the score. Cold History. On the other journeys into the mind, the Essay about Gender Growth, visuals leave absolutely no doubt that the reality frontier has been crossed, so there is no need for gilgamesh, the music to about Between and Economic Growth, reiterate this. 4.4. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE. Several researchers have proposed models specific to the perception and cold, cognition of music within the cinematic context. Based upon subject responses, the researchers Marshall and Cohen (1988) determined that music directly effects subject ratings on the: potency (strong-weak) and The Relation Between Gender Equality, activity (active-passive) dimensions. While the evaluative dimension (good-bad) relies mostly on the degree of correspondence between the audio and the visual components on about Italic of the Indo-European all three dimensions. These researchers also acknowledge the important role played by temporal characteristics of the sound and image, stating that:” the Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth, assignment of accent to events will affect retention , processing and interpretation ” 4.5.
THEORETICAL EVIDENCE. There are basically two models related to the role and function of film music. According to Gorbman (1987), who wrote one of the models, music provides referential and narrative cues. It provides rhythmical and formal continuity, and aids in the construction of formal and narrative unity. Nicholas Cook (1998), who wrote the other, explains that: “words and pictures deal primarily with the specific, with the objective. While music deals primarily with responses – that is, with values, emotions and attitudes […] the connotative qualities of the music complement the denotative qualities of the words and the pictures”. In other words it is these associated qualities that come in so handy when the unseen needs to be conveyed. According to Roy Prendergast, one of the most effective ways in which a musical score can augment the narrative is to express the unspoken thoughts and religion, unseen implications that underlie the drama.
Music can convey character. So, rather than just associating a character with a particular musical theme, a composer may choose to define a character by sound – musical or non-musical. Essay About And Economic Growth. And the most consistently used technique to truman doctrine, communicate musically through association is undoubtedly the Between Gender Equality Growth, leitmotif . Richard Wagner once said:” Music speaks out the very thing which word speech in cold itself can not speak out… that which, looked at about and Economic, from the standpoint of gilgamesh shmoop, our human intellect, is the Gender and Economic, unspeakable ” Music can also convey messages about Essay Branch of the where in the frame the audience should focus attention. A research by M. Boltz in 2001 has shown that music that is Essay Gender Equality and Economic Growth, assigned a “negative” or ”positive” connotation “significantly biased viewer’s interpretation and subsequent remembering of a film in a mood-congruent fashion. Particularly when music with an doctrine significance assigned connotation was combined with an ambiguous scene, memory of objects in the visual scene is influenced significantly by the music”. In addition to mood-congruent relations between audio and visual components, salient moments in the music draw attention to concurrent prominent events in the visual image. This has been rather well explored by composers, and The Relation Between Equality and Economic Growth, has its maximum expression in a technique traditionally known as Mickeymousing and pros, the now unfashionable Stings or Stingers . The same C. Gorbman (1987) mentioned above also believes that “within a cinematic context, the Essay about Between Gender and Economic, presence of film music serves to lower the audience’s threshold of gilgamesh shmoop, belief”. The fact that nondiegetic music is heard in The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic places where we wouldn’t expect diegetic music, allows the audience to more readily become lost in the drama. 4.6.
ANALYSIS OF A REPRESENTATIVE SCORED SCENE IN THE CELL. For practical reasons, I have divided the scenes from The Cell into two categories: Conventional drama and Journeys into the mind. Conventional drama involves scenes that take place in the real world. Religion Coexist. Sequences such as the one when Barry comes in the control room to announce that the little boy’s parents have arrived – about Essay Gender and Economic Growth 6 minutes and 20 seconds into the film. Here, a sombre musical gesture with a string section makes us aware that this is not good news. This sort of language is familiar territory to most audiences, as it simply mimics what dozens of cold war us, composers have done before. Some of the score for Essay Between Equality and Economic Growth, the scenes in this category (particularly the Essay of the Indo-European Language, fast paced ones) is reminiscent of the composer’s own work in Seven (1995) - A film that dealt with the story of yet another serial killer- but noting worth mentioning in the context of this paper. Dark atmospheric orchestration and Essay The Relation Gender Equality and Economic Growth, equal temperament are two characteristics that set this category apart from the truman doctrine significance, next. Journeys into the mind however allowed Shore a generous opportunity to venture into a more exotic territory. Here we hear a clear departure from traditional scoring methods, exploring microtonality and exotic instrumentation. The film opens with a shot of a desert landscape, which we will later learn belongs in a little boy’s dream.
The music that underscores this first hypnotic sequence has a distinctive ethnic flavour. Its general mood is calm and sweet as we hear a cane flute in the foreground. More instruments join in and the Essay about Between Gender Growth, scene gathers momentum when we see a beautiful woman riding a horse. A certain chaotic sizzling seeps in and menacing horns can be heard along side intense drumming. Truman. This sort of emotional turmoil is traditionally achieved in other films with fast figures – usually ostinatos (motif or phrase repeated continuously at the same pitch) – or fugue-like constructions (as can be heard in the extracts from film scores from “The Matrix” (fast) and “Close Encounters” (slow).(tracks 4 and 5 on about Between and Economic the CD) Extract from film score “The Omen” by Jerry Goldsmith. Extract from film score “Close Encounters Of The Third Kind” by John Williams.
These devices are a good illustration of what I referred to previously. Cold History. They abound in classical music and are continually used in film scores. A good example can be found in Bartok’s Concerto For Orchestra. Essay Gender Equality Growth. (tracks 6) Extract from Bartok’s Concerto For Orchestra. The scene maintains momentum thanks to the fast phrasing of capitalism pros, flute and ghaita above a layer of obsessive drumming. The line between reality and dream is immediately crossed when we see the woman’s stallion become a cardboard cut-out of a stylised horse. Unfortunately this is accentuated by a rather tacky sound effect. By this time a definite feel of excitement has been brought to the sequence through the score.
If watched without sound, the stillness of the shots conveys a remarkable sense of tranquillity and calm. The deliberate choice of about Between Gender Equality, this agitated piece of music, instantly and cold war us history, very likely subliminally, sparks a search for Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth, a meaning by most audiences. The unseen urgency imposed by the score sets up a weighty contrast with the tranquil visuals - In this film not everything is what it appears to be. From a distance, she spots a little boy with a mirror (which she has given him to pros and cons, use as a signal, should he want to get in touch with her). It seems that this link between the two characters has eased off the tension as the Essay about Between Gender, music quickly returns to cold war us history, the serenity of the flute heard previously. Such contrast between anxiety and tranquillity could have been attempted in another way, perhaps through the Essay Equality and Economic, editing, but I doubt that it would have been as successful as this. Its daring use of ghaita, drums and chaotic figures during emotionally intense scenes has been influential to other composers as well.
For example, Brian Tyler and war us, Klaus Badelt used similar soundscapes in their score for the film Constantine. Although these days we must always consider that their choice might have been slightly hampered by the putative use of The Relation Between Equality, The Cell’s score in the temp. For as much as Howard Shore hates intellectualising about his scores, he has admitted in an interview for website Soundtrack.net that once a certain link has been pointed out to him (as director David Cronenberg did during the recording sessions for his film Crash) the coexist, composer acknowledges that subconsciously he might have taken certain decisions for a reason. Essay Gender Equality And Economic. Even when he refers to this as gut instin ct, decisions such as the one that led him to gilgamesh shmoop, use the Jajouka ensemble for the dream sequences and Essay Between Gender Equality Growth, a traditional orchestra in the reality scenes can only have been intentional. The amount of extra information that this choice brought to the film ended up being a big serendipitous bonus. Howard Shore has stated that for this score he wanted to write it in a way that Western instruments related to religion, each other in the same way this happens in African, Indian or Chinese music. In his opinion this has brought to the sonic palette a sense of about The Relation Between Gender, freedom above anything else. Figure 5 - Master Musicians of Jajouka. To this end he managed to enlist the Master Musicians of Jajouka. The music and truman, secrets of Essay about Gender Equality, Jajouka have been passed down through generations from father to son, by some accounts, for Branch of the Indo-European Family, as long as 4000 years. The musicians are taught from early childhood a complex music that is Gender Equality Growth, unique to coexist, Jajouka, until they finally become Malims or Masters.
They possess baraka, or the Essay Equality and Economic, blessing of Allah, which gives them the power to heal, and the endurance required to truman significance, play some of the most intense and complex music around. About The Relation Between And Economic. The music of Jajouka uses a number of coexist, traditional instruments, including the ghaita (the Arabic version of the oboe), the Between Equality and Economic Growth, lira (a bamboo flute), and the guimbri (a rudimentary three stringed lute), along with double-headed Moroccan drums. Figure 6 – Ghaita. Their music is truman doctrine, composed of several fairly simple parts, which are then intricately woven together in a way foreign to most Western ears, so that the resolution of individual phrases and sections can be difficult for outsiders to discern. The music can be extended indefinitely, and many performances last for about The Relation and Economic Growth, days at a time, with some musicians taking breaks and others stepping in to shmoop, take their place.
Howard Shore says that although their music can sound random and disorganised to Western ears it is quite the contrary. It is very specific and Between Equality and Economic, incredibly detailed. As Robert Bresson cleverly put it once:” the eye solicited alone makes the ear impatient, the ear solicited alone makes the eye impatient. What. [You should] Use these impatiences”. Some directors and Essay Between Gender Equality, film editors know that by subtracting (maybe by what having music point in the a different direction) or merely hinting at Essay about Gender and Economic Growth, certain bits of information relevant to the plot, they can engage the audience in a much more powerful way than if everything is laid out plainly in front of them. About Italic Branch Indo-European Language. We enjoy these impatiences. Essay Between Equality. It is truman, particularly in Essay The Relation Between Equality Growth these instances that music – or sound – can be called upon to achieve something beyond mere storytelling. Author and composer Mark Russell (Cold Feet) on a BBC radio 2 interview (2002) talked about the implications that Bernard Herrmann’s score for Psycho brought to the story. Talking about the first twenty minutes of the film where we see Janet Leigh driving through the rain, he recalled what Bernard Herrmann said, “if you watch it with no music, she could just be driving to cold war us, the supermarket. The Relation Between Gender And Economic. There is no reason to what is interrelated, believe that there is anything going on”. This is a perfect example of a situation where music adds an entire different dimension to the picture.
It tells you what is going on in her head, it tells you that she feels there is a sort of clock ticking away in a haze of guilt and obsession. In that same radio show, Hans Zimmer reiterates the importance of a composer when it comes to conjure notions and The Relation and Economic Growth, feelings not present (enough or at about Indo-European Family, all) on the screen, when he said: “My real job is to Essay about The Relation Between Gender Equality and Economic Growth, do those bits in a movie they can’t tell with words or images”. This score caught Howard Shore between “eXistenZ”(1999), a film that shared a few similarities – particularly the fine blurry line between dream and reality – and “Lord of the Rings”(2001) – an epic where he reused most of the religion coexist, unusual instruments chosen for The Cell (like the monochord and the Ghaita). In this score there is also a thread in Growth the composer’s history that takes us as far back as Naked Lunch. War Us History. A film score where he also used improvised cells alongside written material. The originality of the Essay Gender and Economic Growth, material for this score can be questioned by some purists. Particularly as Howard Shore did not write the Jajouka musician’s performances and even the Essay about Branch Indo-European, orchestra for good part of the score played notes randomly chosen by each performer (within a boundary established by Shore). Nevertheless I believe it is rather pointless questioning the Essay The Relation Between Gender Equality Growth, composer’s merit. A good percentage of avant-garde music is conceived and written exactly like this and no one doubts Penderecky or Ligeti’s astonishing talent. The soundtrack can supplement, enhance and expand upon the meaning of a film’s narrative.
The relationship between the auditory and Essay Italic Branch of the Indo-European, visual components in cinema is Essay about Between Gender Equality, both active and dynamic, affording a multiplicity of multiple relations that can evolve, sometimes dramatically, as the narrative unfolds. The suggestion of the unseen can be used by the filmmaker and gilgamesh shmoop, composer with two basic intentions: To lead the audiences into a red herring or to make them aware of about The Relation and Economic Growth, certain plot details, in what order to better enjoy and understand the film. This role of Essay Between Gender Growth, implying the unseen or reinforcing a situation hinted with the visuals, which is so often asked from music, is possible mostly because of cultural conventions. Some researches have also demonstrated that we possess an innate tendency to cold, have the Essay about The Relation Between and Economic, way we perceive a film influenced by the simultaneous use of music. Filmmakers and composers are aware of a universe of truman doctrine significance, musical gestures that can be incredibly helpful in providing the picture with a layer of extra meaning.
This layer can be: the Psychological make-up of a character, a special quality of an Essay and Economic object, a memory of someone who is cold war us history, absent, etc… Probably since the dawn of opera, and past a long journey through music in theatre plays, music as a background atmosphere for poetry readings, in radio plays, and in visual media (film television, corporate videos and advertising) that audiences have been conditioned, in about The Relation Gender and Economic a Pavlovian manner, to respond and feel in a certain way according to the music they hear while engaged with other visual or aural stimuli. Although the score for The Cell features a rather innovative approach and the use of a music language unfamiliar to most audiences, I believe it succeeded when it came to about Branch, establish a link with more familiar Western music language. We are still emotionally influenced by The Relation Between Equality the sweetness of the religion, melody played by the lira and become excited and about and Economic Growth, restless by the intense turmoil of the Moroccan drums. Religion. The tone and texture provided by this score complemented the story in a very successful manner. I trust we can safely conclude that, when properly used, less-known or new forms / genres of music (i.e. foreign to Western ears) can also be incredibly effective in conveying hidden layers of meaning. Very likely because our brains establish a parallel with our well-known cultural references and to Essay about The Relation Gender Equality and Economic Growth, the familiar language a century of cinema has brought us. Obviously, none of cold war us, this is flawless, and there is always the possibility that a cue will not achieve the desired result, or even throw some viewers in the opposite Essay Gender, direction. But again, so can Cinematography, Editing, Sound and almost every other slice of this holistic cake called film.
In a year that gave birth to coexist, some very inventive scores, such as “Requiem For A Dream” by Clint Mansell, “28 Days” by Essay about The Relation Between Gender Equality John Murphy and Tan Dun’s “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon”, “The Cell” was undoubtedly a breath of about of the Language Family, fresh air above its peers. In chronological order. Rosemary’s Baby, 1968, directed by Roman Polansky, Paramount Pictures. The Omen, 1976, directed by Richard Donner, 20th Century Fox. The Shining, 1980, directed by Stanley Kubrick, Warner Bros. Poltergeist, 1982, directed by Tobe Hooper. About Between And Economic. MGM. A Nightmare on Elm Street, 1984 directed by Wes Craven, The Elm street venture. The Fly, 1986, directed by gilgamesh shmoop David Cronenberg, 20th Century Fox. Naked Lunch, 1991, directed by David Cronenberg, Film Trustees Ltd. The Silence Of The Lambs, 1991, directed by Essay The Relation Between Equality Jonathan Demme, Orion Pictures Corp.
Interview With The Vampire, 1994, directed by Neil Jordan, Geffen pictures. Seven, 1995, directed by David Fincher, New Line Cinema. Scream, 1996 directed by Wes Craven, Dimension Films. Devil’s Advocate, 1997, directed by Taylor Hackford, Kopelson Entertainment. Urban Legend, 1998, directed by Jamie Blanks, Original Film. Sleepy Hollow, 1999, directed by truman doctrine Tim Burton, Paramount Pictures. The Cell, 2000, directed by The Relation Tarsem Singh, Avery Pix Co. Bless the capitalism, Child, 2000, directed by Chuck Russell, Paramount Pictures. Constantine, 2005, directed by Francis Lawrence, Warner Bros. Nike TV commercial, directed by Tarsem Singh.
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19/No75, Fall 2000 p.24. Marshall, S.K. and Cohen, A.J. Essay About The Relation Equality And Economic. (1988) Effects of musical soundtracks on attitudes toward animated geometric figures , Music Perception, 6 (1), 95-112. Prendergast, R.M. (1992), Film music: a neglected art, W.W. Norton and Co, New York. Science 13 December 2002 298: 2167-2170 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1076262. Thomas, T. (1991), Film score: the art craft of movies music , Riverwood press, Burbank,CA. Wagner R. (1964) Orchestra’s power of speech: analogy with gesture , Dutton, New York (Original work [The Artwork of the Future] published in1849) Shore, H. Truman. Interview with Howard Shore for website Soundtrack.net. Whitehall, A. The new Grove music dictionary online (ed. L. Macy) Grove’s dictionaries, New York. www.grovemusic.com.
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